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Software-Defined Networking Redefines Performance for Ethernet Control Systems

This paper outlines the three distinct advantages that software-defined networking (SDN) brings to Ethernet-based control systems: dramatically improved packet delivery performance under both normal and fault event conditions, greater cybersecurity without added complexity, and centralized situational awareness with disruptionless change control, enabling seamless scalability.

Authors

  • Mark Hadley, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • David Nicol, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • Rhett Smith

Presented At

2017
  • PEAC
  • IEEE ROC&C
Date Code: 20220720
An Introduction to MACsec for Electric Protection and Control Devices

Industrial control system (ICS) owners and operators are increasingly requesting the implementation of cryptographic protocols into critical energy system devices for securing data-in-motion against common threat scenarios. We argue that IEEE 802.1AE Media Access Control Security (MACsec) is the security solution for critical local-area networks (LANs) due to attractive qualities such as simplicity of design and use, and low maintenance requirements. Further, we demonstrate that MACsec may be combined with other cryptographic protocols into a complete secure transport solution for LANs and routed networks.

Authors

  • Colin Gordon
  • Prabhpreet Dua
  • Alex VanDeen
  • Justin Clark
Date Code: 20220706
Lessons Learned Through Commissioning, Livening, and Operating Switchgear

This paper discusses power-system-related events that occurred from commissioning to after handover in a 110, 35, 10, 6, and 0.38 kV power generation, transmission, and distribution system.  Some events involve a single relay; others include complex schemes involving multiple electronic devices, communication protocols, and their impact on overall power system performance. The paper describes the root-cause investigation for each event, as well as the solutions that the engineering team applied.

Authors

  • Matthew Watkins
  • Kamran Heshami
  • Michael T. Mendiola, Tengizchevroil
  • Nilushan K. Mudugamuwa, Tengizchevroil

Presented At

2022
  • PCIC Europe
Date Code: 20220607
Field Experience With Open-Phase Testing at Sites With Inverter-Based Resources

In this paper, we analyze notable field events recorded during open-phase tests at solar facilities. These events reveal system overvoltages and excessive harmonics at several sites. To address these concerns, we use field events to demonstrate the effectiveness of voltage-based detection schemes. These schemes consider the total harmonic distortion of the phase voltages and a zero-sequence overvoltage element.

Authors

  • James Gahan (Cypress Creek Renewables)
  • Ariel Valdez (Dominion Energy)
  • Brett Cockerham
  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • John Town

Presented At

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Date Code: 20220406
Impedance-Based Directional Elements – Why Have a Threshold Setting?

This paper provides guidance on setting impedance-based directional thresholds as well as the overcurrent elements that supervise the directional elements. The paper discusses biassing directional thresholds towards security, dependability, or an equal balance between security and dependability.

Authors

  • Ryan McDaniel
  • Michael Thompson

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220406
A Systematic Approach to Meet NERC PRC-027-1 Requirements – Beyond Compliance

This paper provides a step-by-step guide to comply with NERC PRC-027-1 by exploring the following areas: an introduction and purpose of the standard, a systematic approach to developing processes and protection settings, common and unique coordination challenges, and methods to automate repetitive tasks. Furthermore, the process put forth in this paper was used as the basis of the PRC-027-1 compliance program for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD). Real-world challenges associated with this process from an end-user point of view are also discussed.

Authors

  • Suhag Patel, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
  • Daniel Paraiso, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
  • Swati Agarwal
  • Xiao Geng
  • Ceeman Vellaithurai

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Date Code: 20220405
Case Study: Implementing a Microgrid Protection and Control System for Avista’s Shared Energy Economy Project

A case study in planning, designing, developing, testing, and validating a microgrid control system (MCS) for a university campus consisting of two buildings supplied by one utility feed. Each building contains a battery energy storage system (BESS), a photovoltaic (PV) rooftop installation, a building energy management system (BEMS) with optimization capability, as well as existing protection, control and visualization systems.

Authors

  • John Gibson (Avista Corporation)
  • Michael Diedesch (Avista Corporation)
  • Tyler McCoy
  • Niraj Shah
  • Tim George Paul
  • Ashish Upreti

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Date Code: 20220405
Voltage Collapse System Protection Increases Power Transfer Limits at the Panama Transmission System

This paper presents the main challenges found during power system studies for the Panama transmission system and provides remedial action solutions implemented using modern technologies and wide-area, high-speed communications. 

Authors

  • Alonso Castillo (ETESA – CND)
  • Rodrigo Palacios (ETESA – CND)
  • Aaron Esparza
  • Ulises Torres
  • Jean León Eternod

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
Date Code: 20220401
Test the Right Stuff: Using Data to Improve Relay Availability, Reduce Failures, and Optimize Test Intervals

In this paper, we revisit and update the original paper, “Assessing the Effectiveness of Self-Tests and Other Monitoring Means in Protective Relays,” using field data and expanding the system model to consider improved mean time between failures (MTBF), variances in hardware designs, and the impact of firmware updates in assessing the effectiveness of relay self-testing. Finally, we describe and evaluate four practical levels of detecting the health of a protective relay. These are real-time monitoring of relay self-test alarms, continuous monitoring of communications and analog inputs, performing visual inspections, and lastly, identifying failures that are not detectable without a manual test. By using data and targeted approaches, protective relay users can know and improve relay availability, reduce failures, and optimize protection system testing intervals.

Authors

  • Adrian Genz
  • Derrick Haas
  • Karl Zimmerman

Presented At

2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220329
Locating Complex Double-Line-to-Ground Faults: Theory and Field Case Study

This paper shows how to use event report data to locate DLG faults with several different nonstandard configurations. The paper shows how to analyze these DLG faults by solving voltage loop equations written in the phase domain, using A, B, and C components rather than symmetrical components. The paper demonstrates the applicability of these techniques to a real-world fault.

Authors

  • Steven Chase
  • Sumit Sawai
  • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220325
Voltage Transformer Failure Prediction With Synchrophasor Data

This paper presents a novel, synchrophasor-measurement-based algorithm that can detect faulty VT circuits weeks before failure, indicate which phase is failing, and provide alarms to power system operators in near-real time. The results from tests of the algorithm using field-measured synchrophasor data are also presented in the paper.

Authors

  • Matthew Rhodes, Salt River Project
  • Md Arif Khan
  • Joshua Wold
  • Greg Zweigle
  • Jared Bestebreur

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech FDA
Date Code: 20220324
Bus Differential Protection Upgrade for a 1,500 MVA Nuclear Power Plant With Atypical Connections

The paper describes a bus protection application for a 1,500 MVA nuclear power plant with external fault current levels exceeding 300 kA. The CTs were inside the generator step-up (GSU) delta winding which challenged bus protection application. This paper talks about the EMT modeling and the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing performed to test the differential element security for external faults, dependability for internal faults, and alarming for a CT failure condition.

Authors

  • Ronald Cole (Dominion Energy)
  • Richard Tuck (Dominion Energy)
  • Thomas Solinsky (Zachry Nuclear Engineering, Inc.)
  • Carolyn Sun
  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • Ahmed Abd-Elkader
  • Bernard Matta

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220322
Distance Elements for Line Protection Applications Near Unconventional Sources

This paper introduces distance elements suitable for protecting lines near wind-turbine generators and inverter-based sources. The paper includes application recommendations for the directly tripping underreaching distance elements (Zone 1), the instantaneous overreaching distance elements in pilot protection schemes (Zone 2), and the step distance protection elements.

Author

  • Bogdan Kasztenny

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220318
Selective Tripping at Point of Common Coupling (PCC) Using Inverse-Time Voltage Characteristics

This paper introduces the use of inverse-time undervoltage and inverse-time overvoltage characteristics in point of common coupling (PCC) protection schemes as a means of detecting distribution feeder faults and determining whether the associated distributed energy resource (DER) should be isolated from the feeder. A method for coordinating inverse-time voltage characteristics at the PCC with inverse-time overcurrent characteristics of other protective devices on the distribution system is also provided.

Authors

  • Jai Subbarayan
  • Brett Cockerham
  • Jeremy Blair

Presented At

2021
  • MIPSYCON
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220318
UHS Relay Testing for Optimal Protection of a Long 345 kV Line With Series Compensation

The Lone Star Transmission, LLC 345 kV transmission corridor comprises two series-compensated lines: 224.9 mi and 189.6 mi. These lines share the same series-compensation sites and include shunt reactors at one of the capacitor locations. Hence, the protection is complex, and accurately locating faults can be difficult with phasor-based impedance and line current differential protection. This paper discusses a system-based testing approach for verifying the performance of ultra-high-speed (UHS) line protective relays. It explains a simulation testing software model and the variety of operational scenarios simulated to improve Lone Star’s protection philosophy for these series-compensated transmission lines in the future. The paper includes the results from these tests, the related optimization of the UHS relay settings, and an evaluation of the UHS-based protection scheme field experience performance for three events.

Authors

  • Matthew J. Lewis, Lone Star Transmission, LLC
  • Faris M. Elhaj, OMICRON electronics Corp.
  • Richard D. Kirby

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220318
Transmission Line Parameter Estimation Using Traveling-Wave Fault Location Data

This paper describes a method to estimate transmission line parameters in traveling-wave (TW) relays. The proposed method uses time-synchronized voltage and current measurements from both ends of a line and TW fault location data available in the event report. Positive-sequence line impedance (Z1) is estimated using prefault positive-sequence quantities. Incremental zero-sequence quantities and TW fault location data are used for zero-sequence line impedance (Z0) estimation. The use of incremental quantities provides better Z0 estimates for both transposed and untransposed lines. Line parameter estimates from both simulation and field events demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

Authors

  • Arun Shrestha
  • Sathish Kumar Mutha

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220317
An Unlikely Pair? Combining Traveling Waves and Phasors for Reclosing on Hybrid Lines

This paper shows how distance elements can be combined with the double-ended traveling-wave fault location method to make reclosing decisions on simple hybrid lines.

Authors

  • Jared Brayton, CenterPoint Energy
  • Sindhu Srinivasan, CenterPoint Energy
  • Swagata Das
  • Derrick Haas
  • Praveen Iyer

Presented At

2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220311
Balancing Substation Design Service Life to Meet Changing Service Conditions and Maximize Useful Life


Authors

  • Matt Gardner, Dominion Energy
  • John Bettler, Commonwealth Edison Company
  • David Dolezilek
  • Jonathan Sykes
  • Mark Zeller

Presented At

2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220311
Case Study: Defining and Measuring Protection Signal Transfer Speed, Latency, and Reliability Within Digital Trip Circuits

This paper investigates methods to measure the speed and performance of digital trip circuits and provides speed comparisons for multiple trip circuit technologies. It also offers guidance, resources, and standards to implement digital trip circuits in protection systems.

Authors

  • Matt Ross, Commonwealth Edison
  • John Bettler, Commonwealth Edison
  • Andrew Sprenger, Puget Sound Energy
  • Jesse Silva, Southern California Edison
  • Austin Wade
  • David Dolezilek
  • Mauricio Silveira
  • Rodrigo Abboud

Presented At

2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220311
Generator Protection Validation Testing Using a Real-Time Digital Simulator: Stator Winding Protection

This paper describes a new synchronous generator model that was developed in a Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The paper discusses how the model was used to validate a new generator relay. Considerations for the dependable application of stator ground protection, the differential element, split-phase protection, and the negative-sequence directional element for different generator faults including ground faults, phase faults, turn-to-turn faults, and series faults, are provided.

Authors

  • Ali B. Dehkordi (RTDS Technologies Inc.)
  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • Normann Fischer
  • Dale Finney

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220310
Power System Contingencies to Evaluate FLISR Systems

Fault location, isolation, and service restoration (FLISR) technologies improve the reliability of the distribution grid, and hence, the control algorithm, communications network, and device settings for the FLISR system should be thoroughly assessed. This paper details contingencies that should be tested for a new FLISR system using an example hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with recloser controls connected to a centralized FLISR system and a mesh radio communication network. It explains methods to obtain expected restoration times for the example system, report the results for the example system, and analyze those results.

Authors

  • Gandhali Prakash Juvekar
  • Ed Atienza
  • Chris Kelley
  • Naresh Malla

Presented At

2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220310
Using Wide-Area Precise Time Distribution to Increase Dependability and Security of Substation Time Synchronization

This paper focuses on a new, resilient approach to time synchronization using time distribution over the wide-area network (WAN)) using Precision Time Protocol (PTP). This solution uses the concept of a time distribution gateway that is able to receive network time either via PTP telecom profile, via GPS directly, or through IRIG-B from a local GPS time source to then provide a submicrosecond timing reference for critical substation applications.

Authors

  • Dustin Williams, Burns & McDonnell
  • Motaz Elshafi
  • Ken Fodero
  • Christopher Huntley
  • Paul Robertson

Presented At

2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220309
Novel Methods to Detect and Identify Fault and Open-Phase Conditions in Pole-Top Capacitor Banks

This paper introduces a method for distinguishing between open-phase, element fault, and system unbalance conditions for distribution poletop capacitor banks. It also establishes a method for identifying the open or faulted phase to assist in timely maintenance.

Authors

  • Kei Hao, Google LLC
  • Jeremy Blair
  • Ben Rowland

Presented At

2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20220308
Coordination of Resistive Reach of Phase and Ground Distance Elements

This paper discusses the issue of coordination of resistive reach of phase and ground distance elements used for transmission line protection. It addresses the considerations and benefits of coordinating this aspect of distance elements considering possible fault resistance.

Authors

  • Charles Henville, Henville Consulting Inc.
  • Ritwik Chowdhury

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
Date Code: 20220208
Challenges and Solutions in the Protection of Transmission Lines Connecting Nonconventional Power Sources

This paper discusses the impact of inverter-based resources (IBRs) in traditional digital protection relays applied in the interconnection transmission line between the IBR and bulk power system and discusses how to properly handle this kind of source by presenting modern protective relays features, time-domain functions, and special settings for traditional protection intelligent electronic devices (IEDs).

Authors

  • Marcelo Bini (EDF Renewables)
  • Ricardo Abboud
  • Paulo Lima
  • Fabio Lollo

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
Date Code: 20220103
Finding Faults Fast Saves Money and Improves Service

This paper discusses the concepts, design, benefits, and deployment of a traveling-wave fault locating (TWFL) system for a 500/230 kV transmission system in Brazil with line lengths ranging from 158 to 355 km (98 to 221 mi). It also discusses the concepts of different fault-locating methods.

Authors

  • Artur Hoff (Terna Plus)
  • Ricardo Abboud
  • Renan Bernardes
  • Paulo Lima

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech FDA
Date Code: 20211130
Field Experience Using Double-Ended Traveling-Wave Fault Locating Without Relay-to-Relay Communications

This paper discusses how Red Eléctrica de España, the transmission system operator in Spain, successfully applied double-ended traveling-wave-based fault locating (DETWFL) on a pilot project where relay-to-relay communications were unavailable. The paper describes the offline DETWFL method and includes an analysis of a B-phase-to-ground fault on a transmission line to illustrate the performance of this method. It provides a summary of results from five faults that occurred on this line while relay-to-relay communications were unavailable. These results highlight the improved accuracy of the offline DETWFL method as compared to the single-ended impedance-based and single-ended traveling-wave-based methods.

Authors

  • David López Cortón, Red Eléctrica de España
  • Jorge Vaquero Melado, Red Eléctrica de España
  • Jesús Cruz
  • Richard Kirby
  • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
  • Gianfranco Patti
  • Greg Smelich

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211122
The Missing Link: How CT and VT Connection Errors Affect Protection

This paper reviews the fundamentals of CT and VT connections. It discusses several basic and advanced testing and commissioning approaches that can help find common wiring errors and improve protection. The paper describes several actual field events of undesired or unexpected relay performance due to improper CT or VT circuit connections, setting or drawing errors, and details on how testing and commissioning checks would have prevented these events from happening.

Authors

  • Marcel Taberer
  • Praveen Iyer
  • Karl Zimmerman

Presented At

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
  • PowerTest Conference
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Date Code: 20211122
Stop the Epidemic! Transformer Protection Misoperations

This paper discusses methods to test and verify transformer differential protection systems. It covers using metering and recordings to verify that current transformer circuits and compensation for magnitude, phase shift, and zero sequence are correct, as well as methods to troubleshoot problems when they are not correct. A new comprehensive differential metering report that simplifies the task is introduced. 

Authors

  • Michael Thompson
  • John Hostetler
  • Ariana Hargrave
  • Sumit Sawai

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20211116
PNM’s Standardization on Ultra-High-Speed Line Relays to Protect Their EHV Transmission Network

This paper discusses PNM’s EHV transmission line protection standard and its application to more than six 345 kV transmission lines on which PNM has successfully installed this new line protection.

Authors

  • Daniel Marquis, Public Service Company of New Mexico
  • Milind Malichkar
  • Ashish Parikh
  • Greg Smelich
  • Kamal Garg

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211111
Lessons Learned From Commissioning of IEC 61850-9-2 Process Bus-Based Busbar Protection System

This paper introduces several of the necessary test processes and performance metrics sufficient for an IEC 61850-9-2 process bus-based protection system installation. Also discussed are the lessons learned from commissioning a process bus-based distributed busbar protection system.

Authors

  • Jerin Monzi Mathew
  • David Dolezilek
  • Mahesh Katuru
  • Rajnarayan Karmaker, Power Grid Company of Bangladesh

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211110
Attack Tree Analysis of a Digital Secondary System in an Electrical Substation

The metric introduced in this paper, threat availability, is used to measure and contrast the potential success of a cyberattack or mitigation control.

Authors

  • Mauricio Silveira
  • David Dolezilek
  • Scott Wenke
  • Jaya Yellajosula

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211109
Line Distance Protection Near Unconventional Energy Sources

This paper introduces distance elements suitable for protecting lines near wind-turbine generators and inverter-based sources. The paper begins by analyzing issues with distance elements that use memory polarization for directionality and negative-sequence current for faulted-loop selection and reactance comparator polarization. The analysis is based on worst-case assumptions derived from field cases and published findings, it avoids modeling by using proprietary and uncertain information about the sources, and it does not assume that the source fault response complies with any local, international, present, or pending interconnection standards. The paper identifies parts of the distance element logic that do not work well in applications near unconventional sources and replaces the problematic parts with alternatives that perform satisfactorily. The solution is based on an offset distance characteristic to avoid memory polarization. It further uses separate directional elements to directionalize the offset distance elements by taking advantage of the system fault current contribution rather than the source current contribution. This paper is an abbreviated version of the SEL technical paper, "Distance Elements for Line Protection Applications Near Unconventional Sources."

Author

  • Bogdan Kasztenny

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211101
A Novel Protection Principle for Ultra-High-Speed Tripping of Lines Terminated on Transformers

This paper introduces a novel protection principle for lines connected to the bulk power system at one end (system terminal) and terminated exclusively on power transformers or current-limiting reactors at the other end (transformer terminal). The new protection principle operates as fast as 1 to 2 ms and covers the entire line length without the need for a protection channel. The new principle is based on the current traveling-wave magnitude measured at the system terminal of the line. This paper is an abbreviated version of the SEL technical paper, "Traveling-Wave Overcurrent – A New Way to Protect Lines Terminated on Transformers."

Authors

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
  • Ralph Barone, Consultant

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211026
Case Study: Phasor-Based Control for Managing Inverter Generation

This paper discusses the infrastructure and performance differences controlling inverter generation with synchrophasor data vs. traditional SCADA protocols like DNP3 or Modbus.

Authors

  • Dmitriy Anichkov (Merit SI, LLC)
  • Brian Waldron

Presented At

2021
  • MIPSYCON
Date Code: 20211026
A Method for Evaluating Loadability of Incremental-Quantity Distance Elements

This paper presents a method for evaluating the loadability of incremental-quantity distance (TD21) protection elements. Responding to changes in voltages and currents, the TD21 elements are not impacted by heavy load or power swings. However, switching operations that result in sudden changes in load, including both load pickup and load rejection, may impact security of the TD21 elements. Traditional methods of evaluating protection element loadability do not apply to incremental quantity-based protection elements and schemes. This paper closes the gap by introducing a simple and practical method of evaluating TD21 loadability. The paper provides a short overview of the key TD21 design details and describes a TD21 loadability evaluation method.

Authors

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

Presented At

2022
  • DPSP
Date Code: 20211021
Comparative Evaluation of Two Process Bus Solutions for a Distribution Substation

This paper describes a case study, performed with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and a local utility company, that comparatively evaluates the cost, reliability, and performance of substation protection and control design between traditional substation architecture and two process bus solutions (P2P- and IEC 61850-based).

Authors

  • Arun Shrestha
  • Sathish Kumar Mutha
  • Devika Kattula (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
  • Nathaniel McAfee (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
  • Rosa Vergara (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
  • Miles Webb (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
  • Dr. Valentina Cecchi (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20211021
Evaluation of Ultra-High-Speed Line Protection, Traveling-Wave Fault Locating, and Circuit Breaker Reignition Detection on a 220 kV Line in the Kalahari Basin, Namibia

This paper provides details about the experience NamPower—the national power utility in Namibia—had with ultra-high-speed (UHS) protection and traveling-wave fault locating (TWFL) while UHS relays were installed to monitor a 220 kV transmission line. It provides the analysis of a C-phase-to-ground fault on the line, discusses observations made from the event records, and relates the concepts of UHS protection and TWFL with the event data. It presents the performance of the protection elements, fault locating, and transient recording capabilities of the UHS relays. The paper compares the observed fault-clearing time of the phasor-based relays to the expected fault-clearing time with UHS relays installed on the line. It also relates fault-clearing time to the concept of critical clearing time and highlights the potential increase in critical clearing time margin when using UHS relays for fault clearing to benefit system transient stability. Additional observations from 1 MHz transient records, such as post-fault arcing and breaker reignition, are discussed, which can aid with asset management and preventive maintenance.

Authors

  • Frans Shanyata (NamPower)
  • Sthitaprajnyan Sharma
  • Deon Joubert
  • Richard Kirby
  • Greg Smelich

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20211020
Inverter-Based Radial Distribution System and Associated Protective Relaying

This paper focuses on the islanded operation of a utility distribution system energized from a BESS and PV inverters. Grid forming with droop control (GFMD) BESS inverters are used to provide resiliency. The protective relaying scheme recognizes the islanded state and communicates the new mode of operation to downstream reclosers by a frequency shift to enable adequate sensitive overcurrent elements and appropriate underfrequency load-shedding thresholds.

Authors

  • Richard Ruppert (Ameren Missouri)
  • Randall Schlake (Ameren Missouri)
  • Scott Manson
  • Fernando Calero
  • Angelos Kokkinis

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
Date Code: 20211020
Use of Directional Elements at the Utility-Industrial Interface

This paper reviews applicable standards and references, and describes the reasons for installing various protective elements at the utility-industrial interface.

Authors

  • David Costello
  • Martin Moon
  • Greg Bow

Presented At

2004
  • WPRC
2005
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
2006
  • Clemson PSC
Date Code: 20211014
Protecting EHV Transmission Lines Using Ultra-High-Speed Line Relays: A New Standard for PNM

With the goal of modernizing its line protection technology and the need for system-wide consistency, Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) standardized their extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission line protection to include ultra-high-speed (UHS) line relays. The standardization allowed PNM to create a new line protection philosophy that allows single-pole tripping and reclosing, a new panel design, and an updated breaker failure scheme. The new protection standard employs best-known practices and innovative methods for designing, testing, and commissioning a protection system using UHS relays. This paper discusses the PNM EHV transmission line protection standard and the application of the standard to more than six 345 kV transmission lines on which PNM has successfully installed this new line protection. The paper also discusses the validation testing of the protection scheme using hardware-in-the-loop simulation with a real-time digital simulator (RTDS). Onsite commissioning, end-to-end testing, and lessons learned are also discussed.

Authors

  • Daniel Marquis (Public Service Company of New Mexico)
  • Milind Malichkar
  • Ashish Parikh
  • Greg Smelich
  • Kamal Garg

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Date Code: 20211013
Advantages of Real-Time Closed-Loop Simulation

In this paper, the authors share their experience and best practices in applying HIL techniques for the petrochemical industry. The paper discusses best practices for constructing and validating models, connecting hardware to simulators, and running an effective HIL factory acceptance test. The authors highlight several in-service petrochemical projects that used HIL simulations and benefited from the resulting cost reduction and risk mitigation.

Authors

  • Scott Manson
  • Abdel Rahman Khatib
  • Niannian Cai
  • Siddharth S. Rajan

Presented At

2021
  • PCIC
Date Code: 20210929
Traveling-Wave Overcurrent – A New Way to Protect Lines Terminated on Transformers

This paper introduces a novel protection principle for lines terminated exclusively on power transformers and current-limiting reactors: the traveling-wave overcurrent (TW50) element. This element operates in as fast as 1 to 2 ms and covers the entire line length without the need for a protection channel. The paper illustrates this protection principle with several field cases and provides application recommendations and the expected TW50 dependability for line faults.

Authors

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Stephen Marx (Bonneville Power Administration)
  • Ralph Barone (Consultant)

Presented At

2021
  • WPRC
2022
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Date Code: 20210928
Settings Considerations for Distance Elements in Line Protection Applications

This paper is a comprehensive review of setting considerations for distance elements in line protection applications and discusses the following:

  • Zone 1 element settings, especially in weak systems (high SIR).
  • Coordination of distance settings in pilot schemes in applications with high SIR.
  • Setting underreaching elements for security and overreaching elements for dependability for multiterminal and untransposed lines and lines with mutual coupling.
  • Setting the resistive reach of quadrilateral distance elements.
  • Impact of high SIR including ground potential rise, stray voltages in control cables, relay transient accuracy, CCVT transients, and other factors.

    Author

    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Presented At

    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20210920
    Integrated Power Management and Protection System for a Remotely Located Islanded Facility

    This paper discusses the Power Management System (PMS) provided for a remote facility that is situated above the arctic circle and does not have any utility connection. The PMS includes high-speed load-shedding, automatic generation control for frequency management, unique reactor control for limiting current (amperes), and VFD control for voltage stability, reactive load sharing, and automatic synchronization of different electrical islands. This paper also discusses control hardware-in-the-loop (c-HIL) testing using a real-time transient-level computer model of the power system which was used for functional testing of the PMS including protection and automation prior to field deployment.

    Authors

    • Mehul Joshi (Teck Resources Limited)
    • Greg Smith (Teck Resources Limited)
    • Pradeep Varma Sangaraju
    • Ashish Upreti
    • Maaz Kazmi

    Presented At

    2021
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20210903
    Upgrading PacifiCorp’s Jim Bridger RAS to Include Wind Generation

    This paper discusses the updates to the generation-dropping Jim Bridger RAS algorithm to integrate additional wind generation assets with existing coal-fired generation. The updates to the RAS algorithm include monitoring the new 500 kV transmission line and wind generation assets and using new criteria for selecting a combination of thermal and wind generation for tripping and new unit-selection logic.

    Authors

    • Rikin Shah (PacifiCorp)
    • Robert Hines (PacifiCorp)
    • Pamela Palen (PacifiCorp)
    • Hariharan Subramanian
    • Rameez Syed
    • Alejandro Carbajal

    Presented At

    2021
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20210902
    Transmission Line Setting Calculations – Beyond the Cookbook Part II

    This sequel to the original “Beyond the Cookbook” paper continues to discuss the challenges encountered when creating line relay setting calculations and how to apply practical solutions outside of cookbook guidelines. This sequel also expands upon subjects that are only touched on in the original paper; for example, line current differential (87L) protection, three-terminal line protection, accounting for a high source impedance ratio (SIR), switch-onto-fault (SOTF) protection, and more.

    Authors

    • Michael Thompson
    • Daniel Heidfeld
    • Dalton Oakes

    Presented At

    2021
    • WPRC
    2022
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210901
    Transmission Line Protection for Systems With Inverter-Based Resources

    In this paper, we provide application guidance to set conventional line protection schemes reliably in systems with inverter-based resources (IBRs). The guidance is based on a study performed as part of a collaborative effort by NERC, Sandia National Laboratories, four IBR manufacturers, and two relay manufacturers. The IBR manufacturers provided “real-code” models for their Type 3 Wind, Type 4 Wind, and PV Solar, which were used in PSCAD simulations and subsequently played back through relay hardware. The paper shares relay oscillography to explain the challenges and solutions.

    Authors

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20210826
    A Novel Maintenance Mode for IEC 61850 Digital Secondary Systems to Improve Protection Availability

    This paper describes a novel maintenance mode for IEC 61850-based DSS IEDs to keep protection functions enabled during maintenance. It describes in detail how the maintenance mode can be implemented using the IEC 61850 standards.

    Authors

    • Arun Shrestha
    • Priyanka Nadkar
    • Karen Wyszczelski
    • Bharat Nalla

    Presented At

    2021
    • PAC World Conference
    Date Code: 20210715
    Field Experience With Ultra-High-Speed Protection, Traveling-Wave Fault Locating, and Circuit Breaker Reignition Detection on a 220 kV Line in the Kalahari Basin

    This paper shares NamPower’s field experience with ultra-high-speed protection and traveling-wave fault locating on a 220 kV line. It discusses observations made from transient event records captured during a C-phase-to-ground fault on the line. It presents the performance of protection elements, fault locating, and transient recording capabilities, which have the potential to benefit system stability and aid with preventive maintenance of assets.

    Authors

    • Frans Shanyata, NamPower
    • Sthitaprajnyan Sharma
    • Deon Joubert
    • Richard Kirby
    • Greg Smelich

    Presented At

    2021
    • PAC World Conference
    Date Code: 20210715
    Understanding the Impacts of Time Synchronization and Network Issues on Protection in Digital Secondary Systems

    This paper analyzes the impacts of time synchronization and network issues on protection functions for an IEC 61850-based DSS. Test cases that demonstrate disabling of protection functions due to loss of a time source and a delay in protection function operation during network congestion are presented.

    Authors

    • Arun Shrestha
    • Mauricio Silveira
    • Jaya Yellajosula
    • Sathish Kumar Mutha

    Presented At

    2021
    • PAC World Conference
    Date Code: 20210715
    Using a Real-Time Digital Simulator to Compare Performance of Conventional Relays With Relays Based on IEC 61850 Sampled Values

    This paper compares the performance of two protection systems by measuring the same analog quantities. One system takes measurements through direct wiring, and the other receives information over Ethernet using the IEC 61850 Sampled Values protocol. The tests use a real‐time digital simulator responsible for generating the analog quantities of the faults and measuring the response time of both systems by closing their respective digital contacts and consequently opening the circuit breakers.

    Authors

    • Andrei Coelho
    • Paulo Lima
    Date Code: 20210713
    Double-Ended Traveling-Wave Fault Locating Without Relay-to-Relay Communications

    This paper discusses how a transmission system operator in Spain successfully applied double-ended traveling-wave-based fault locating (DETWFL) offline when relay-to-relay communications were unavailable. It also discusses the possibility of using DNP3 over Ethernet to retrieve event information, allowing for automatic DETWFL calculations offline. Finally, it includes the analysis of a B-phase-to-ground fault to illustrate the performance of the applied offline DETWFL method.

    Authors

    • David López Cortón (Red Eléctrica de España)
    • Jorge Vaquero Melado (Red Eléctrica de España)
    • Jesús Cruz
    • Richard Kirby
    • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
    • Gianfranco Patti
    • Greg Smelich

    Presented At

    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2022
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    Date Code: 20210701
    A New Digital Distance Element Implementation Using Coincidence Timing

    This paper presents a new distance protection element implementation that is based on the analogue principle of coincidence timing. The paper explains the basics of coincidence timing and the many advantages of this approach. The new algorithm has been implemented in a hardware platform and consistently operates with speed on the order of half a cycle. The paper shares laboratory test results from hardware-in-the-loop tests and illustrates the new approach using a field case.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Amol Kathe
    • Chad Daniels

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20210618
    Best of Both Worlds – Analog Principles Applied in a Digital Distance Relay

    This paper reviews the basics of coincidence timing for shaping distance element characteristics (mho and quadrilateral), explains the benefits of using coincidence timing, shows digital implementations that far surpass the dreams of analog relay designers, and presents test results from an implementation that uses the best of both worlds—analog principles implemented in a digital relay.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Chad Daniels
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Amol Kathe

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20210617
    Distance Protection: Why Have We Started With a Circle, Does It Matter, and What Else Is Out There?

    This paper explains the principles and illustrates the operation of distance protection including traditional mho and quadrilateral elements, new time-domain incremental quantity distance elements, and future distance elements based on voltage and current traveling waves.

    Authors

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210608
    Line Length and Fault Distance Considerations in Traveling-Wave Protection and Fault-Locating Applications

    This paper analyzes the impact of line length, fault location, and locations of external and internal discontinuities on traveling-wave (TW) protection and fault-locating functions. The paper explains the underlying principles and derives a method to calculate the minimum line length that yields an expected level of accuracy and dependability. The paper serves as a tutorial on propagation and timing of TWs and is of interest to those practitioners who evaluate, test, apply, and troubleshoot TW-based devices.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Venkat Mynam

    Presented At

    2022
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20210519
    Combining Battery and AC Sources for More Reliable Control Power

    This paper presents an approach to increasing the reliability of auxiliary dc control circuits by combining multiple sources and providing ride-through capabilities in the event of a loss of all input sources. It highlights technical benefits and applications while showing how increased source diversity can improve the availability of dc control power for protection and control, as well as for tripping circuit breakers.

    Authors

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • David E. Whitehead
    • Michael Thompson
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
    • Austin Wade
    • Bruce Hall
    • Sean Robertson

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20210506
    Do IT Cryptographic Security Controls Work for Energy Systems?

    This paper discusses reasons why many security techniques commonly applied in IT systems and based on cryptography may
    be unsuitable for application in critical portions of energy systems. It proposes for system owners an approach to designing energy systems that separates system elements into those that are dynamic and static, and it builds on that approach with recommendations for OT cryptographic security controls in energy system networks.

    Authors

    • Josh Carlson, Dragos, Inc.
    • Dan Gunter, Dragos, Inc.
    • Casey Roberts, Duke Energy Corp.
    • Colin Gordon
    • George Masters
    Date Code: 20210504
    Finding Common Ground: A Case Study of Phantom Currents and Ground Loops

    In February of 2018, a current differential relay protecting a 138 kV/69 kV autotransformer tripped for an out-of-zone ground fault. System conditions were such that the low side of the autotransformer was open, but the relay event reports showed fault currents present on the low side. Initial investigation hinted at a CT secondary circuit problem, and three more faults that occurred the following week helped narrow it down. This paper describes the investigation into these faults, how root cause was found, and how ground potential rise can cause phantom currents to flow in relay CT circuits.

    Authors

    • Matthew Boecker, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Jared Candelaria
    • Ariana Hargrave

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210324
    Cyber Vulnerability Assessment of a Digital Secondary System in an Electrical Substation

    Modern digital secondary system technology uses digital communications among relays and remote digital sensors over high-speed fiber connections to perform fault detection and trip circuit control. A cyber vulnerability assessment of each proposed communications design is essential to evaluate the energy control system’s reliability. Many cybersecurity technologies from numerous industries are promoted for use in DSS communications with unknown impacts. This paper introduces appropriate metrics and a cyber vulnerability assessment framework, using the attack tree method, to compare the cyber risk of available technologies to determine the dependability and security of digital control and protective trip circuits.

    Authors

    • Mauricio Silveira
    • David Dolezilek
    • Scott Wenke
    • Jaya Yellajosula

    Presented At

    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210311
    Event Investigation of 69 kV Double-Circuit Faults

    This paper presents a case study of double-circuit faults on SDG&E’s 69 kV system that caused multiple relays to operate. The paper explains the relay operations, focusing on the directional element, and concludes with lessons learned. The paper also emphasizes system-wide, time-coordinated event report analysis, which was indispensable to the root cause analysis.

    Authors

    • Ahsan Mirza, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Christopher Bolton, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Girolamo Rosselli, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Sergio Flores, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Amanvir Sudan

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210311
    Line Current Measurement at Dual-Breaker Terminals: Challenges and Solutions

    This paper explains the challenges of measuring line current accurately at dual-breaker terminals and the impact on line protection. It then discusses solutions to improve relay security at dual-breaker terminals.

    Authors

    • Michael Lampe (Lower Colorado River Authority)
    • Genardo Corpuz (Lower Colorado River Authority)
    • Swagata Das
    • Ariana Hargrave

    Presented At

    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    2022
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20210310
    The Need for Faster Underfrequency Load Shedding

    This paper proposes a new rate-of-change-of-frequency scheme that allows for fast underfrequency load shedding to minimize frequency excursions. It also presents simulations showing that the scheme is secure from misoperations for source transmission line operations.

    Authors

    • Kevin W. Jones, Xcel Energy
    • Katriana Webber, Xcel Energy
    • Krithika Bhuvaneshwaran

    Presented At

    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210310
    Application Considerations for Protecting Three-Terminal Transmission Lines

    Three-terminal transmission lines pose protection challenges not encountered with more familiar two-terminal lines. A three-terminal line in Oncor Electric Delivery’s power system is considered in this paper. Different topologies and contingencies affect infeed and outfeed levels, requiring careful selection of protection element settings and directional element polarizing quantities. Lessons learned are generalized so they may be applied to optimize security and dependability in any three-terminal line application.

    Authors

    • Robert Jimerson (Oncor Electric Delivery)
    • Alex Hulen
    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Neeraj Karnik
    • Bernard Matta

    Presented At

    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210304
    Permissive or Blocking Pilot Protection Schemes? How to Have It Both Ways

    This paper reviews permissive and blocking pilot schemes for protection of transmission lines. It covers principles of operation, settings considerations, the importance of coordinating the forward and the reverse fault detectors, applications to multiterminal lines, and single-pole tripping. The paper also describes add-ons used for dependability of the permissive schemes: open-breaker echo logic, weak-infeed logic, and channel failure logic. The paper introduces a crossover permissive-blocking scheme that eliminates the need for additional engineering required by many applications of permissive schemes, while allowing fast tripping without the coordination time. The scheme is easy to configure and test, and it uses two pilot bits in a multibit digital protection channel. 

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Normann Fischer
    • Armando Guzmán

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210301
    Using High-Resolution Oscillography to Improve the Performance of Controlled Switching for Transformers

    This paper describes the design and commissioning of a controlled switching scheme to energize and de-energize a 485 MVA, 220/18 kV transformer. It highlights the use of high-resolution oscillography to supplement breaker timing tests to obtain a critical breaker advance-time setting for the scheme. The results show that by using a controlled switching device and fine-tuning its breaker advance-time setting, inrush currents exceeding 6 pu were reduced to less than 0.2 pu.

    Authors

    • Vetti Bala, Genesis Energy
    • Brett Hampson
    • Ritwik Chowdhury

    Presented At

    2019
    • EEA Conference
    2021
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    Date Code: 20210226
    Stator Ground Protection for Multiple High-Impedance Grounded Generators Sharing a Common Bus

    Typical 100 percent stator ground protection schemes face reliability challenges when applied to multiple high-impedance grounded generators that share a common bus or generator step-up winding. This paper presents a method that allows third-harmonic and injection schemes to be effectively applied in this situation and also presents two complementary methods to facilitate selectivity when protecting units that share a bus.

    Authors

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Jason Young
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Subhash Patel

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20210224
    Determining CT Requirements for Generator and Transformer Protective Relays

    This paper provides insight into the similarities and differences in the IEEE and IEC CT sizing requirements for generator and transformer differential applications and presents easy-to-use CT requirements and setting guidance for secure protective relay application. An application example is included.

    Authors

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210129
    Simplifying PRC-026 Compliance With Practical Solutions You Least Expect

    This paper offers practical corrective action plans (CAPs) that can provide PRC-026 compliance in nearly all cases without replacing the relays or preventing trips for true out-of-step power swings. The paper discusses various types of power swing blocking (PSB) and out-of-step tripping (OST) schemes and other features available in multifunction line relays that can help with compliance. Many of the CAPs presented are not the solutions you expect.

    Authors

    • Pratheek Annamdevula
    • Austin Thurman
    • Michael Thompson
    • Brian Smyth
    • Demetrios Tziouvaras

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20210125
    The Response of a Transformer Differential Relay to Internal Faults While Influenced by Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    When influenced by quasi-dc ground currents, the magnetization characteristics of wye-connected transformers produce second harmonics that may approach or surpass second-harmonic levels commonly experienced during transformer inrush events. In this paper, we discuss a saturable transformer model simulation composed to create a matrix of tests that varied the magnitude of transformer internal fault current and the magnitude of quasi-dc ground current. We applied test currents on two transformer differential relay designs. One set of test currents was to validate that the relays remain secure for geomagnetically induced current (GIC) saturation, and the other to compare how the relays perform for internal faults with varying amounts of fault resistance and increasing levels of GIC. We explore cross-harmonic blocking and harmonic restraint as variables and evaluate the relationship of the pickup levels for the operate/restraint curve. We include recommendations for possible mitigation techniques.

    Authors

    • Andrew Mattei, Baylor University/Brazos Electric Power Cooperative, Inc.
    • Derrick Haas
    • Jared Candelaria
    • Dr. W. Mack Grady, Baylor University

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20201020
    Hidden in Plain Sight: Anticipating and Avoiding Hidden Failures in Communications‑Assisted Protection

    This paper addresses concerns about unintentional and dangerous mistakes hidden in plain sight when ECS design teams implement digital trip circuits based on IEC 61850 process bus protocols. It draws parallels between the circumstances surrounding infamous failures in aerospace and aviation and the hidden dangers a lack of preparedness can produce in ECS design.

    Authors

    • Allan McDonald, Aerospace Consultant
    • Anna Dolezilek, Role-Based Certification Consultant
    • David Dolezilek

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200911
    Case Study: How CT Saturation Due to Incorrect Point-on-Wave Switching Affects Shunt Reactor Differential Protection

    This paper examines undesired operations (UOs) of differential elements that protect shunt reactors installed on high-voltage and extra-high-voltage transmission lines, particularly UOs that occur because of a CT and CT burden mismatch. Field events and tests are included, as well as a model of the power system that illustrates system sensitivity. Different techniques for mitigating UOs are discussed.

    Authors

    • Fabio Bassi, Terna Rete Italia S.p.A.
    • Gianluca Ramundo, Terna Rete Italia S.p.A.
    • Andrea Di Tomasso
    • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
    • Marcos Donolo

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200909
    Ensuring the Stability of the Belgian Grid With a Special Protection System

    This paper discusses the challenges, solutions, and design details of a special protection system (SPS) installed by the transmission system operator, Elia, in Belgium. It discusses the SPS focus on security and availability, and the hardware-in-the-loop testing of the whole system before it was commissioned.

    Authors

    • Rodolphe Hanuise, Elia Engineering
    • Cédric Moors, Elia Engineering
    • Fernando Calero
    • Milind Malichkar
    • Eliseo Alcázar
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200904
    Case Studies of IEC 61850 Process Bus Systems Using GOOSE and Sampled Values: Recent Installations and Research

    This paper illustrates design and operational considerations for use when replacing elements of hardwired protective relay trip circuits with digital messaging via process bus networks based on IEC 61850 GOOSE, Sampled Values, and Precision Time Protocol. The paper introduces topology designs and process bus communications designs in use at Southern California Edison and Commonwealth Edison Company, as well as research being done at Puget Sound Energy.

    Authors

    • John Bettler, Commonwealth Edison Company
    • Jesse Silva, Southern California Edison
    • Dan Morman, Puget Sound Energy
    • Ricardo Abboud
    • David Bowen
    • Ed Cenzon
    • David Dolezilek

    Presented At

    2020
    • MIPSYCON
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200903
    Solving Synchronization Challenges Using Distributed Signal Acquisition With Fiber-Optic Links

    The challenges of designing synchronizing systems for utility and industrial power systems have become more complex. Traditional synchronizing technology limits the possible solutions to these challenges. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of conventional synchronizing systems and show the advantages of using the advanced automatic synchronizer (A25A) with new digital secondary system (DSS) technology as a practical solution.

    Authors

    • Sruty Singh
    • Michael Thompson
    • Hardesh Khatri

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200903
    Analysis of In-Service Line Current Differential Protection Circuits: Comparing SONET With Packet-Switched Network Performance

    Many utilities are migrating their network infrastructure from TDM/SONET to packet-based technologies such as MPLS. This paper uses the alpha plane with a custom phase angle comparison approach to study live data taken over a multi-week period from Central Lincoln PUD’s in-service line current differential protective relays. The paper compares the performance of SONET with a packet network before and after migration and show it is possible to achieve SONET-grade performance over packed-based network using virtual synchronous networking (VSN) technology.

    Authors

    • Ron Beck, Central Lincoln PUD
    • Paul Robertson
    • Troy Ledford
    • Cole Salo

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20200902
    Reliable Protection Using a System Preservation Scheme

    This paper describes the design and testing of a system preservation scheme on an islanded system at Red Dog Mine in Alaska, and includes the considerations necessary to the unique circumstances of the system.

    Authors

    • Mehul Joshi, Teck Alaska Inc.
    • Scott L. Barndt
    • Alaap Anujan
    • Ceeman Vellaithurai
    • Mahipathi Appannagari
    • Brandon Nafsinger

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200902
    Implementing a Microgrid Using Standard Utility Control Equipment

    This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of the microgrid controls for the Duke Energy McAlpine Creek microgrid project and the lessons learned from its implementation.

    Authors

    • Tom Fenimore, Duke Energy
    • Andy Gould
    • Larry Wright

    Presented At

    2016
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Americas
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2018
    • Clemson PSC
    Date Code: 20200722
    Improvements in Generator Breaker Failure Protection During Low-Current Conditions

    This paper discusses the challenges with generator breaker failure schemes and proposes three methods of improving generator breaker failure protection under low-current conditions. The paper also provides a detailed analysis of breaker pole stuck conditions.

    Authors

    • Matchyaraju Alla
    • Sumit Sawai
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20200717
    Using Real-Time Testing Tools to Baseline the Performance of OT Networks for High-Speed Communications

    In this paper, we discuss the various operational technology tools available for the performance analysis of mission‐critical Ethernet-based communications networks. We describe techniques for simple test cases that provide performance quantification of the communications path in terms of determinism, latency, and availability, using as an example tests performed at the Enel Smart Grid Lab (created by E‐Distribuzione in Milan).

    Authors

    • Luca Delli Carpini, E‐Distribuzione
    • Amandeep Kalra
    • David Dolezilek
    • Giorgio Vielmini
    • Tim Grigg

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    • PAC World Americas
    Date Code: 20200716
    Adaptive Coordination Schemes to Reduce Fault Energy in Distribution Feeders Using Wireless Protection Sensors

    Many utilities with overhead distribution lines make tradeoffs when designing protection schemes. Ideally, the system minimizes fault energy by limiting fault duration in high-risk environments, yet maximizes power quality and availability in urban areas. This paper describes how these contrasting goals are achieved using wireless protection sensors to identify the faulted line section and instantly transmit fault messages to a recloser control. With this real-time information, the protection logic adapts its response for the faulted section, dynamically applying fast overcurrent elements with a truncated reclosing sequence to reduce fault energy in high-risk sections, using standard schemes elsewhere.

    Authors

    • Kei Hao
    • David Keckalo

    Presented At

    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20200610
    Switch Onto Fault: Maintaining Dependability, Security, and Speed

    This paper discusses switch onto fault (SOTF) settings for dependable fault coverage and security for heavy load conditions when SOTF voltage reset is not available. A case study is included to illustrate the speed sacrifices made when a distance element, rather than an instantaneous element, must trip during an SOTF condition. The paper also discusses the effects of source impedance ratio and considerations during use of high-speed reclosing.

    Authors

    • Rohith Poduval, NIPSCO
    • Ryan McDaniel
    • Sujay Dasgupta

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PowerTest Conference
    Date Code: 20200513
    Testing IEC 61850 Merging Units

    This paper presents an efficient and systematic approach for evaluating merging units. It offers engineers help, particularly during merging unit testing, in understanding certain characteristics of a merging unit and in gaining confidence with Sampled Values technology.

    Authors

    • Qiaoyin Yang
    • David Keckalo
    • David Dolezilek
    • Ed Cenzon

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200506
    Beyond the Knee Point: A Practical Guide to CT Saturation

    This paper describes how CTs saturate in a simple and intuitive way. The paper describes symmetrical and asymmetrical saturation, remanence, the CT equivalent circuit, the CT excitation graph, ANSI ratings, and how to analyze CT performance using simple equations and tools. It then shows how to detect CT saturation in relay event reports and how relay operation can be compromised during CT saturation.

    Authors

    • Ariana Hargrave
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Brad Heilman

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2019
    • PowerTest Conference
    Date Code: 20200501
    Fast Wind Farm Restoration Using Wireless Fault Sensors to Identify Faulted Segments

    This paper presents improvements in wind farm fault identification systems based on innovative fault sensor systems with wireless communications.

    Authors

    • Afonso César Tavares, CPFL Renováveis
    • Andrei Coelho
    • Mauro Magalhães
    Date Code: 20200424
    Case Study: High-Density Distribution Coordination Using High-Speed Communications

    This case study, focused on Alabama Power, describes a topology-based coordination scheme that leverages the utility's high-speed communications infrastructure to provide advanced distribution protection.

    Authors

    • Robert M. Cheney, Alabama Power
    • John T. Thorne, Alabama Power
    • Robert Van Singel
    • Andrew Hanson
    • Chris Anderson
    • Joshua Hughes

    Presented At

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20200423
    Adaptive Loss-of-Field Protection Tailored to the Generator Capability Curve

    This paper discusses the effects of loss of field (LOF) on the generator and the connected power system. This paper also presents the implementation details of a new adaptive P-Q plane-based LOF protection for four zones.

    Authors

    • Matchyaraju Alla
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20200311
    Lessons Learned From Generator Destructive Testing

    Avista Utilities has been in the process of upgrading a set of 8.8 MVA, 4 kV, 48-pole, 60 Hz generators at one of their hydroelectric facilities. The authors took this unique opportunity to perform destructive testing on one of these generators prior to its scheduled upgrade. This paper describes the planning and execution components of this destructive testing and also discusses the lessons learned throughout the entire process.

    Authors

    • Calvin Howard, Avista Utilities
    • Beth Andrews, Avista Utilities
    • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities
    • Normann Fischer
    • Dale Finney
    • Matchyaraju Alla

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    2020
    • Australian Protection Symposium
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20200309
    OOPS, Out-of-Phase Synchronization

    This paper presents an out-of-phase synchronization (OOPS) protection scheme for detecting faulty generator synchronization and providing high-speed tripping. It demonstrates the performance of the scheme with a real-world event in which a steam turbine generator was synchronized 180 degrees out of phase. The paper also includes a discussion of testing methods for verifying synchronization circuits.

    Authors

    • Kelvin Barner, Duke Energy
    • Nathan Klingerman, Duke Energy
    • Michael Thompson
    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Satish Samineni

    Presented At

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20200228
    New Voltage-Based Breaker Failure Scheme for Generators

    This paper describes a new breaker failure scheme for generator breakers that is based on voltage measurements to detect the failure of a generator breaker to open and separate the generator from the power system. The paper discusses details of the scheme and application and operation considerations relative to generating plant bus topology.

    Authors

    • Michael Thompson
    • Dale Finney

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20200214
    A Practical Guide to Substation Testing Using IEC 61850 Mode and Behavior

    This paper discusses two of the most important IEC 61850 Edition 2 test features: Mode Control (widely referred to as "Test Mode") and Simulation. The paper first briefly describes the test features in Edition 2 and then illustrates the applications and guidelines for these features in depth, including potential pitfalls. Finally, the paper provides examples related to various utility domains as a practical guide to help the reader make informed choices on how to use these test features, independently or combined. The use cases include asset additions, commissioning, and multiowner systems.

    Authors

    • Edson Hernández
    • Tovah Whitesell
    • Karen Leggett Wyszczelski

    Presented At

    2020
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20200131
    Autoconfiguration of Microgrid Controls

    This paper describes how an autonomous microgrid control and protection system is automatically configured without human involvement. Two variants of this solution are shared: one for a rapidly deployed, mobile power system and one that integrates a fixed campus power system.

    Authors

    • Brandon Marcum
    • Ellery Blood
    • Jason Dearien
    • Scott Manson

    Presented At

    2020
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20200130
    Case Study: Implementing Redundant Logic Controllers in Substations

    This paper discusses the design and implementation challenges of implementing redundant logic controllers. It examines how communication channels affect data process and how reliability requirements affect design decisions. The paper also examines the decisions the implementers must make when creating a redundant controller solution. The paper includes a case study of a recent implementation, which covers a utility's decisions in implementing redundant logic controllers.

    Authors

    • Sagar Dayabhai, CONCO Energy Solutions
    • Brian Waldron
    • Marcel van Rensburg

    Presented At

    2020
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20200130
    New Advancements in Solar Grid Controllers

    This paper investigates several features that could be integrated into solar power plant controllers. It considers the current state of the industry and examines the technical, regulatory, and implementation challenges of potential new features in power plant controls for solar power.

    Authors

    • Brian Waldron
    • Bryan Fazzari

    Presented At

    2020
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20200128
    Solving Performance and Cybersecurity Challenges in Substation and Industrial Networks With Software-Defined Networking

    This paper discusses the application of software-defined networking (SDN) in a substation environment using IEC 61850 GOOSE protocol. It reviews the benefits of SDN over traditional Ethernet networking in the areas of fast failover, network visibility, network engineering, and cybersecurity.

    Authors

    • Dalton Shaffer, City Light & Power, Inc.
    • Devin Thewlis, City Light & Power, Inc.
    • Tom Bartman
    • Tristan Atiyeh

    Presented At

    2020
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Americas
    Date Code: 20200128
    Simplifying Compliance: An Integrated Approach to Meeting NERC PRC-002 and PRC-005 Requirements

    This paper discusses the functional overlap between the data sets required by NERC PRC-002 and PRC-005 and provides several examples of how these data can enhance power system maintenance programs.

    Authors

    • Darrin Kite
    • Jeff Otto
    • Isaac West

    Presented At

    2020
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20200127
    Power System Operation and Control Solutions Using IEC 61850

    This paper describes the implementation of a circulating current scheme that uses IEC 61850 GOOSE messages to provide automatic voltage regulation for up to four paralleled power transformers.

    Author

    • Brett Hampson

    Presented At

    2018
    • CEPSI
    2019
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Date Code: 20200113
    A New Digital Filter Using Window Resizing for Protective Relay Applications

    This paper presents a design of a variable-window filter for protection applications. The filter uses a full-cycle sliding data window until a disturbance is detected, at which time the window size is considerably shortened to include only disturbance samples and exclude all pre-disturbance samples. With the passing of time, the window size grows to include more disturbance samples as they become available. When the window reaches its nominal size, it stops extending and starts sliding again. By purging the pre-disturbance data, the new filter strikes an excellent balance between protection speed and security.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Chad Daniels

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20200108
    Circuit Breaker Ratings – A Primer for Protection Engineers

    This paper explains how the X/R ratio and the relay operating time affect the asymmetrical current breaker rating. The paper proposes how to derate a breaker for the relay operating time that is shorter than the standard reference relay time of 0.5 cycle. The paper calculates the “rating loss” due to fast tripping and concludes that applying customary margins when selecting breakers may be sufficient to mitigate the effect of ultra-high-speed relays without the need to replace breakers.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Joe Rostron, Southern States, LLC

    Presented At

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20191122
    Using Software-Defined Networking to Build Modern, Secure IEC 61850-Based Substation Automation Systems

    This paper discusses an application of software-defined networking (SDN) to meet stringent network performance and cybersecurity requirements. It compares this application to traditional spanning-tree-based networks to show SDN's ability to meet and exceed those requirements.

    Authors

    • Amandeep Kalra
    • David Dolezilek
    • Jerin Monzi Mathew
    • Rajkumar Raju
    • Robert Meine
    • Dinesh Pawar, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20191108
    Case Study: Adaptive Load Shedding in Critical Industrial Facilities

    This paper describes the design, implementation, and operational results of an in-service load-shedding scheme for a large chemical industrial complex in Mexico. The proposed load-shedding scheme uses high-speed IEC 61850 GOOSE messages and synchrophasors, which provide apparatus monitoring and control, remote load shedding, and monitoring of power measurements for onsite generators and the interconnection with the electric utility system.

    Authors

    • Edson Hernandez
    • Bob Hughes
    • José de Jesús Durón-Mendoza, Grupo Zener S.C.

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20191107
    Preventing Line Faults With Continuous Monitoring Based on Current Traveling Waves

    This paper presents line-monitoring logic for continuous monitoring of high-voltage power lines by using traveling waves for the purpose of preventive maintenance through identifying and locating fault precursors to reduce the count of line faults and unscheduled outages.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Dennis Holmbo

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20191107
    CT Sizing for Generator and Transformer Protective Relays

    In this paper, we consider some of the similarities and differences between IEEE and IEC guidance on CT selection. We use CT models verified using high-current tests on a physical CT. Then using these models, we determine CT sizing guidelines and relay settings for a generator and transformer differential relay.

    Authors

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20191105
    Comparing the Cost, Complexity, and Performance of Several In-Service Process Bus Merging Unit Solutions Based on IEC 61850

    In this paper, we make a comparative analysis of the performance, cost, complexity, resiliency, and security of several in-service digital secondary system process bus solutions for devices with complete station bus capabilities based on the IEC 61850 communications standard.

    Authors

    • David Dolezilek
    • Paulo Lima
    • Geraldo Rocha
    • Augusto Rufino
    • William Fernandes

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20191105
    Cybersecurity Based on IEC 62351 and IEC 62443 for IEC 61850 Systems

    In this paper, established industrial control system (ICS) methods and standards are used to design defense-in-depth cybersecurity methods for digital communications within an energy control system (ECS) communications network.

    Authors

    • David Dolezilek
    • Dennis Gammel
    • William Fernandes

    Presented At

    2020
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20191105
    Practical Experience With High-Impedance Fault Detection in Distribution Systems

    This paper documents how PPL Electric Utilities improved high-impedance fault (HIF) detection on their distribution system by adding an HIF detection algorithm and updating metering technology while still using their existing protective relaying. The paper documents live downed conductor detection testing and the associated findings along with lessons learned from the initial pilot and subsequent enhancements to the system, including adding HIF tripping logic.

    Authors

    • Mychal Kistler, PPL Electric Utilities
    • Frank Heleniak
    • Tanvi Varshney

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20191021
    A Case Study: Pilot Protection Misoperations Due to Transmission Line Switching

    Several transmission protection misoperations have occurred because of the operation of pilot protection schemes during transmission line switching. In this paper, we discuss many solutions implemented by various utilities and compare the solutions against real-world events.

    Authors

    • Cobey Bean, Western Farmers Electric Cooperative
    • Fred Mathew
    • Siddharth Rajan
    • Amit Somani

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20191017
    Resetting Protection System Complexity

    Power systems are technological marvels. However, as protection has become faster, automation more prevalent, and communications wide-spread, protection systems have become more complex. A. R. van C. Warrington wrote, "In spite of good intentions ... there is a tendency to extend the operation of relay schemes by adding additional features until complexity results and then it becomes necessary to re-design." Is there an opportunity to reset the complexity curve and still achieve high-speed, sensitive, selective, and simple protection systems that provide automation, system visibility, and cybersecurity? We believe the answer is YES!

    Authors

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • David E. Whitehead

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20191014
    Locating Faults Before the Breaker Opens – Adaptive Autoreclosing Based on the Location of the Fault

    This paper reviews the merits of controlling autoreclosing based on the location of the fault. Special attention is given to hybrid lines comprising underground cable sections and overhead line sections. The paper explains how the traveling-wave technology allows precise fault locating on these lines and how to use the fault location for autoreclosing for faults on overhead sections and blocking autoreclosing for faults on cable sections.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PAC World Conference
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20191009
    Understanding Ground Fault Detection Sensitivity and Ways to Mitigate Safety Hazards in Power Distribution Systems

    This paper revisits different grounding practices in distribution power systems. It discusses how system grounding and load connection impact the sensitivity of detecting higher-impedance ground faults. The paper discusses possible ways of improving the ground fault detection sensitivity for different systems. The paper illustrates that no single economical technology or practice available today can guarantee 100 percent reliable high-impedance ground fault detection. To provide a perspective with respect to ground faults versus fire ignitions, the paper reviews several staged downed conductor tests and summarizes key research findings in released energy of arcing faults and fire ignition.

    Authors

    • Scott Hayes, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • Daqing Hou
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20190923
    CT Saturation on Transformer Energization: Ensuring Your Black-Start Generator Stays Online

    This paper shows why correct CT selection is important for the reliable operation of generator differential protection and, for instances where the CTs cannot be matched properly, provides insight into different mitigation strategies. The paper examines a case from a user who encountered a generator relay misoperation during black-start conditions and discusses how the problem was solved using the strategies presented in the paper.

    Authors

    • Austin Wade
    • Jordan Bell
    • Marcos Donolo

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190908
    Application of Ultra-High-Speed Protection and Traveling-Wave Fault Locating on a Hybrid Line

    This paper discusses a pilot installation experience of using ultra-high-speed (UHS) protection and traveling-wave fault locating on a hybrid line at a power utility in India. The paper presents details about the hybrid line pilot installation, commissioning of the UHS relays for protection and fault locating, and overall performance of the UHS relays for faults recorded on the pilot system.

    Authors

    • Sthitaprajnyan Sharma
    • Amol Kathe
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Thamizhcholai Kanagasabai

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190906
    Extremely Fast Tripping for an Arc-Flash Event: A Field Case Analysis

    This paper describes an arc-flash event that occurred at the first 10 MW grid-tied energy storage plant in India. It explains how an installed arc-flash protection application used light sensors in conjunction with ultra-high-speed overcurrent elements to trip quickly. The paper also explains how important the inter-tripping between different voltage levels can be for reducing incident energy and preventing further damage from an arc flash.

    Authors

    • Manibhushan Prasad, Tata Power Delhi Distribution Limited
    • Mohanraj Perumalsamy
    • Shripad Kapse
    • Chethan Kumar Barikar
    • Deepak Srivastava
    • Ricardo Abboud

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190905
    Detecting and Locating Broken Conductor Faults on High-Voltage Lines to Prevent Autoreclosing Onto Permanent Faults

    This paper describes a new algorithm that uses only single-ended measurements to reliably detect broken conductors and estimate their location by using the charging current of the line. We can use broken-conductor detection to trip the breakers before the conductor touches the ground and creates a shunt fault and block any attempt to reclose the line onto this permanent fault. The proposed algorithm is validated by three field events from 57.1 kV and 220 kV lines and results from EMTP simulations.

    Authors

    • Kanchanrao Dase
    • Sajal Harmukh
    • Arunabha Chatterjee

    Presented At

    2019
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190904
    Considerations When Using Charging Current Compensation in Line Current Differential Applications

    Every high-voltage transmission line draws capacitive charging current that a line current differential (87L) relay must compensate for; otherwise, the protection scheme might misoperate. This paper reviews charging current theory, calculations, and compensation methods. It also provides guidelines to help protection engineers determine when charging current compensation is required for an 87L scheme.

    Authors

    • Jordan Bell
    • Ariana Hargrave
    • Greg Smelich
    • Brian Smyth

    Presented At

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190821
    SDG&E Relay Standards – Updating Tertiary Bus and Reactor Protection

    This paper discusses protection scheme design methodology and challenges for shunt reactor applications. The paper discusses the possible improvements to the protection scheme design in consideration of tertiary dry-type reactors using modern relays. In addition, the paper also discusses the overall protection design as applied to the San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) system for reactor bank and related tertiary bus applications.

    Authors

    • Bill Cook, retired from San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Chris Bolton, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Kamal Garg

    Presented At

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190724
    Sizing Chokes for Mission-Critical Islanded Power Systems

    This paper shares a set of equations for sizing chokes for isolated-parallel power systems. The theory behind each equation is shared, and chokes are sized for an example power system.

    Authors

    • Scott Manson
    • Mike Mosman, Morrison Hershfield Corporation

    Presented At

    2019
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20190719
    IEC 61850 Network Cybersecurity: Mitigating GOOSE Message Vulnerabilities

    This paper explores security weaknesses in the GOOSE protocol and how to mitigate them using managed switches and software-defined networking (SDN).

    Authors

    • Mauricio Gadelha da Silveira
    • Paulo Henrique Franco

    Presented At

    2019
    • PAC World Americas
    Date Code: 20190712
    Complete IEC 61850 Protection and Control System Cybersecurity Is So Much More Than Device Features Based on IEC 62351 and IEC 62443

    In this paper, the Purdue Model is used to design defense-in-depth cybersecurity methods to implement human-to-machine and machine-to-machine digital communications within an energy control system (ECS) communications network. The ECS communications architecture is divided into multiple appropriate levels with unique requirements and features from the process up through the station and finally to the control center.

    Authors

    • David Dolezilek
    • Dennis Gammel
    • William Fernandes

    Presented At

    2019
    • PAC World Conference
    Date Code: 20190703
    Improving Cybersecurity Through a Centralized Password Management System

    This paper discusses how a centralized user and password management system can enhance the security of secondary system infrastructure. The paper also discusses how this system can enhance substation infrastructure without interrupting operations.

    Authors

    • Ammad Ali
    • Husam Ahmed
    Date Code: 20190524
    Improving Operation and Maintenance of Substation Equipment Using Operational Data From Protective Relays

    Protective relays provide extensive information that can be retrieved and linked with operational and maintenance topologies, either manually or automatically. This paper details the data that can be retrieved from modern digital protective relays only and how these data can be used to develop an equipment maintenance program that saves time and money.

    Author

    • Mohamed Nabil Ali

    Presented At

    2019
    • GCC Power
    Date Code: 20190524
    Software-Defined Networking Reinforces Security and Performance in Operational Technology Communications Networks

    This paper discusses the basics of control and data planes in a network system. It also compares software-defined networking (SDN) performance with that of traditional Ethernet switches and discusses how SDN optimizes the network in an automation system.

    Authors

    • Anwar Habeeb Moinudeen
    • Ammad Ali

    Presented At

    2019
    • GCC Power
    Date Code: 20190524
    Implementing an Intelligent Steam and Electrical Load-Shedding System for a Large Paper Mill: Design and Validation Using Dynamic Simulations

    This paper discusses how the implementation of a load-shedding system in a paper mill increased the reliability of the mill while minimizing operating costs and capital losses during unplanned events. The paper further discusses, in detail, the dynamic modeling of a double-extraction steam turbine and the validation of the load-shedding system in a closed-loop environment.

    Authors

    • Siddharth Rajan
    • Payal Gupta
    • Srikar Malladi
    • Prasanna Muralimanohar
    • Guenther Strunk, International Paper Company

    Presented At

    2019
    • PPIC
    Date Code: 20190422
    Beyond the Nameplate – Selecting Transformer Compensation Settings for Secure Differential Protection

    This paper presents simple rules for the correct selection of transformer differential relay compensation settings and their application to real-world installations.

    Authors

    • Barker Edwards, PowerServices, Inc.
    • David G. Williams, FirstEnergy Corporation
    • Ariana Hargrave
    • Matthew Watkins
    • Vinod K. Yedidi

    Presented At

    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    2017
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20190418
    Making My Paper Mill Safer: An Arc-Flash Energy Reduction Story

    This paper details an arc-flash mitigation scheme installed on 50 unit substations at a Midwestern pulp and paper mill, which reduced the average arc-flash rating by 90 percent.

    Authors

    • Haley Newton
    • Jordan McCrory, formerly with Verso Corporation

    Presented At

    2019
    • PPIC
    Date Code: 20190415
    Cost and Performance Comparison of Numerous In-Service Process Bus Merging Unit Solutions Based on IEC 61850

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the various communications network topologies and process instrumentation and control devices. The analysis includes the reliability of various systems in terms of unavailability. The cost and complexity of each solution is also evaluated along with the level of expertise required by maintenance teams to detect failures and restore system operation. Performance is evaluated based on the speed of detection and reaction to a power system fault.

    Authors

    • David Dolezilek
    • Paulo Lima
    • Geraldo Rocha
    • Augusto Rufino
    • William Fernandes

    Presented At

    2019
    • PAC World Conference
    Date Code: 20190412
    Case Study: Turbine Load-Sharing and Load-Shedding System for an Australian LNG Facility

    This paper presents a turbine load-sharing and load-shedding system for an islanded liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Australia. The system includes three independent and redundant load-shedding schemes: process-based contingency load shedding with predefined load group and load pairs, high-speed underfrequency-based load shedding, and progressive overload shedding with system frequency supervision.

    Authors

    • Abdel Rahman Khatib
    • Bowen Dai
    • Roberto Costa
    • Anshuman Mallya, Chevron

    Presented At

    2019
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20190404
    Improving Line Crew Dispatch Accuracy When Using Traveling-Wave Fault Locators

    Traveling-wave fault locators are very accurate. To retain the inherently high per-unit fault location accuracy, utilities need a method to convert the per-unit fault location to the tower identifier in order to use their mapping data when dispatching line crews. This paper presents several methods for improving accuracy of tower position information for the purpose of dispatching line crews. These methods use past faults for which the location has been confirmed with high confidence, line taps, and Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) tests for identifying splice locations in the Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) cables.

    Author

    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Presented At

    2019
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190404
    Techniques for Commissioning Arc-Flash Mitigation Systems

    This paper explains best-known practices and tools available for commissioning arc-flash mitigation systems. Topics discussed include how to select and configure test equipment, interpret device self-test diagnostics, and validate system performance with event reports and time-synchronized devices.

    Authors

    • Matthew Cato
    • Scott Manson
    • Matthew Watkins
    • Andy Gill, Fluor Ltd.

    Presented At

    2019
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20190404
    Compensator Ground Fault Coverage Through a Delta-Wye Transformer – A Case Study

    This paper discusses how ground faults affect distance relays that are set to reach through delta-wye transformers.

    Authors

    • Dustin Hohenbery, Caterpillar
    • Ryan McDaniel
    • Harish Chaluvadi
    • Michael J. Thompson

    Presented At

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20190402
    Impacts of Single Event Upsets on Protective Relays

    This paper examines single event upsets (SEUs), their causes, mitigation methods, and most importantly, how engineers can make the protection system more resilient if or when SEUs occur. The paper quantifies how often SEUs are likely to occur and suggests and compares some practical application and control design solutions.

    Authors

    • Karl Zimmerman
    • Derrick Haas

    Presented At

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20190313
    The Useful Life of Microprocessor-Based Relays: A Data-Driven Approach

    Confidence in microprocessor-based protective relays has steadily increased over the four decades since their invention. As the service life of these devices exceeds multiple decades, questions regarding when and how to strategically replace these relays are increasing. This paper defines terms associated with the reliability of protective relays, provides field-observed life cycle reliability data, and suggests replacement strategies.

    Authors

    • Derrick Haas
    • Matt Leoni
    • Karl Zimmerman
    • Adrian Genz
    • Travis Mooney

    Presented At

    2019
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20190313
    Fault Currents, Circuit Breakers, and a New Method for X/R Calculations in Parallel Circuits

    This paper examines the problem of determining a system’s X/R ratio when there are parallel circuits at the fault and no single X/R precisely describes the current. It develops a rigorous method to construct and algebraically solve the differential equation of the fault current, thus providing the accurate transient component. Examples are provided, and the concept of a variable X/R is proposed to consider the actual impact of the transient current.

    Author

    • Amir Norouzi

    Presented At

    2019
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20190308
    Practical Experience With Ultra-High-Speed Line Protective Relays

    This paper documents the experience of applying an ultra-high-speed relay that uses incremental quantities and traveling-wave-based protection elements on a 115 kV line. The paper provides extensive event analysis to evaluate the performance, security, sensitivity, and dependability of the relay and presents the lessons learned from the application.

    Authors

    • Nicholas Metzger, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company
    • Benjamin Carstens, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company
    • Frank Heleniak

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    Date Code: 20190308
    Capability Curve-Based Generator Protection Minimizes Generator Stress and Maintains Power System Stability

    This paper presents implementation details of a generator protection scheme with characteristics tailored to the generator capability curve of the machine. The proposed scheme provides improved generator protection and simplifies coordination of scheme elements with the generator underexcitation limiter.

    Authors

    • Matchyaraju Alla
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • RVP-AI
    Date Code: 20190307
    Protection and Testing Considerations for IEC 61850 Sampled Values-Based Distance and Line Current Differential Schemes

    When designing Sampled Values-based (SV-based) substations, engineers must prove that SV-based schemes are as secure and reliable as traditional protection systems. This paper discusses the impact of communications conditions on line protection, provides benchmark test results, and highlights considerations that protection engineers should factor in when implementing SV-based line protection schemes.

    Authors

    • Steven Chase
    • Erin Jessup
    • Mauricio Silveira
    • Jiawei Dong
    • Qiaoyin Yang

    Presented At

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20190307
    Real-World Troubleshooting With Microprocessor-Based Recloser Controls

    This paper provides accounts of undesired operations that have occurred in real recloser installations, reveals the root cause, and offers techniques to mitigate against future failures. The paper categorizes recloser installation misoperations as single-pole tripping, reclosing, and apparent miscoordination issues. The paper recommends commissioning and maintenance practices as well as tips for troubleshooting and repairing recloser systems.

    Authors

    • Marcel Taberer
    • Jeremy Blair

    Presented At

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20190307
    Sequence Component Applications in Protective Relays – Advantages, Limitations, and Solutions

    This paper is a tutorial on protection applications of sequence components, focusing on advantages, limitations, and application considerations.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190306
    Mystery Solved: Five Surprises Discovered With Megahertz Sampling and Traveling-Wave Data Analysis

    High-frequency traveling-wave technology is entering the power system application mainstream, bringing with it an unprecedented level of highly accurate signal detail. This paper documents and explains some of the more surprising, lesser-known, and strange-looking waveforms captured while monitoring high-voltage transmission lines with megahertz sampling.

    Authors

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Jean León Eternod
    • Yanfeng Gong, American Electric Power

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • RVP-AI
    Date Code: 20190304
    Understanding Design, Installation, and Testing Methods That Promote Substation IED Resiliency for High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Events

    This paper demonstrates intelligent electronic device (IED) resiliency to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events through analysis and test results. It presents substation grounding and wiring practices that are HEMP resilient and also highlights available HEMP standards as they relate to IEDs and substation control houses. This information will help utilities prevent unnecessary mitigation efforts and address the concerns regarding the effects of HEMP on substations and substation IEDs.

    Authors

    • Tim Minteer
    • Travis Mooney
    • Sharla Artz
    • David E. Whitehead

    Presented At

    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20190301
    Expanding Protection and Control Communications Networks With Wireless Radio Links

    This paper examines the application of GOOSE over Ethernet radios and the associated challenges. The paper shares results from a real-world implementation, including results from GOOSE latency tests for protection and control applications.

    Authors

    • Tom Bartman
    • Ben Rowland
    • Laura Rogers, Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc.

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    • PAC World Americas
    2018
    • Clemson PSC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2019
    • REPC
    Date Code: 20190215
    Apply a Wireless Line Sensor System to Enhance Distribution Protection Schemes

    This paper describes the components of a wireless protection sensor system, its integration with protection devices, and how the fault information can be transmitted from the sensors to such devices at protection speeds. Additionally, this paper discusses how protection devices use this low-latency fault information to securely speed up the operation speed of and improve the selectivity of distribution protection schemes.

    Authors

    • Jakob Fowler
    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Kei Hao
    • David Keckalo

    Presented At

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • IEEE ROC&C
    2019
    • REPC
    Date Code: 20190201
    A Practical Guide to Designing and Deploying OT SDN Networks

    This paper explores how operational technology software-defined networking (OT SDN) can deliver benefits for OT networks in determinism, traffic control, and failure recovery by using an application-focused, proactive, and predictable design based on a deny-by-default cybersecurity architecture. This paper then describes an approach to designing and deploying an OT SDN network to incorporate these benefits by focusing on discussing design processes (such as requirement gathering, topology design, and path planning) and engineering considerations (such as automation, validation, and testing).

    Author

    • Robert Meine

    Presented At

    2019
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20190131
    All About Eve: Comparing DNP3 Secure Authentication With Standard Security Technologies for SCADA Communications

    This paper discusses cryptographic system implementations in operational technology (OT) environments and how protocols such as IPsec, TLS, and DNP3-SA can be mapped onto common distribution communications architectures. It also provides recommendations for OT system owners and manufacturers who wish to implement cryptographic solutions.

    Authors

    • Clifford Rosborough, Exelon
    • Colin Gordon
    • Brian Waldron

    Presented At

    2019
    • MIPSYCON
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20190131
    Solving the Inherent Problem of Transporting Serial Teleprotection Circuits Over MPLS

    As utilities implement packet-based Ethernet transport technology, communications engineers must design pilot channels that still meet strict protection application requirements. This paper describes a deterministic transport solution for critical traffic over packet-based wide-area networks (WANs) that is compatible with both Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Carrier Ethernet systems. Live implementation performance data are included.

    Authors

    • P. Robertson
    • K. Fodero
    • C. Gray

    Presented At

    2019
    • SEAPAC
    Date Code: 20190130
    Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing for Protection Applications

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation that uses wavelength division multiplexing in high-performance power system protection applications. The investigation was performed using the latest generation of carrier-grade optical transport network (OTN) equipment. The paper documents the performance, opportunities, and pitfalls associated with this application and outlines practical strategies for the seamless integration of protection systems with the latest generation of OTN technologies.

    Authors

    • V. Skendzic
    • N. Fischer
    • J. Sykes, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • D. Day, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • K. Fennelly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Presented At

    2018
    • DPSP
    2019
    • SEAPAC
    Date Code: 20190130
    Lessons Learned in Implementing IEC 61850 Communications Solutions

    This paper discusses many of the common challenges of integrating intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) in an IEC 61850 environment, how to diagnose problems using packet analysis tools and IEC 61850 MMS browsers, and what settings in the IED or Configured IED Description (CID) file need to be adjusted to resolve these challenges.

    Authors

    • Kevin Mahoney, Casco Systems
    • Kevin Coyne, Casco Systems
    • Brian Waldron

    Presented At

    2019
    • PEAC
    Date Code: 20190125
    Application Considerations for Protecting Transformers With Dual Breaker Terminals

    This paper discusses the protection of transformers with dual breaker terminals. It covers the compromises that often must be made between security and sensitivity of protection for this common configuration. The paper describes methods for designing transformer protection schemes and presents guidelines for selecting CT ratios and setting restrained and unrestrained differential elements for these applications.

    Authors

    • Shahab Uddin, American Electric Power
    • Abu Bapary, American Electric Power
    • Michael Thompson
    • Ryan McDaniel
    • Kunal Salunkhe

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20181207
    Open-Phase Detection for Station Auxiliary Transformers

    This paper discusses some of the potential causes of open-phase conditions, their impacts on power system operation, the challenges in detecting them, and some novel methods developed to detect them. It discusses the implementation of these methods in microprocessor-based protective relays at several nuclear power generating stations. The paper also presents field results of a successful open-phase detection.

    Authors

    • Dwayne Cox, Exelon Generation Company, LLC
    • Ahmed Abd-Elkader
    • Harish Chaluvadi

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20181016
    Emerging Communications and Sensor Technologies That Advance Distribution Automation

    In distribution systems, power utilities are integrating intelligent sensors and advanced communications that go beyond substations and require minimal human interaction. This paper describes many of the technologies and sensor systems that utilities can employ to unlock new distribution applications and enable efficient energy delivery.

    Authors

    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Kei Hao
    • Jakob Fowler

    Presented At

    2018
    • MIPSYCON
    2019
    • PEAC
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Date Code: 20181012
    Evaluating Overhead Line Reclosing Sequences Based on Transformer Through-Fault Exposure

    This paper demonstrates using the transformer through-fault capability curves of IEEE C57.109 to evaluate the through-fault damage of various reclosing sequences on an example distribution transformer. The method described in this paper provides distribution owners and operators with a tool to consider the reliability benefits of reclosing versus the loss of life of power transformers.

    Authors

    • Ed Atienza
    • Chris Kelley

    Presented At

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    2020
    • International Conference of Doble Clients
    Date Code: 20181002
    Phase-Shifting Transformer Control and Protection Settings Verification

    This paper discusses the protection and controls for two parallel 400 MVA (+31.3° to –80.1°) phase-shifting transformers at a utility's 230 kV interconnection substation.

    Authors

    • Bill Cook, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Kamal Garg
    • Milind Malichkar

    Presented At

    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180906
    Computationally Efficient Methods for Improved Double-Ended Transmission Line Fault Locating

    This paper describes two categories of impedance-based double-ended fault-locating methods used in transmission systems. The first category includes methods that use local measurements and remote currents. The second category includes methods that use both local and remote currents and voltages. This paper analyzes the accuracy and limitations of known time-synchronized double-ended fault-locating methods and proposes two new methods.

    Authors

    • Kanchanrao Dase
    • Normann Fischer

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20180831
    Innovative Approach to Meet NYC System Reliability and Resilience Needs

    This paper discusses the concept of the "resiliency transformer" and its electrical and physical characteristics. It also discusses aspects related to the design of mobile relay panels, the demonstration and staging of the units, digital secondary protection systems, digital simulations, and commissioning.

    Authors

    • Ed Wah Chen, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Anastasia O’Malley, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Nadia Ali, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Leslie Philp, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Diego Pichardo, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Fabricio Mantilla, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Rogerio Scharlach
    • Satish Samineni

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180831
    Low-Cost Fast Bus Tripping Scheme Using High-Speed Wireless Protection Sensors

    This paper describes the characteristics, dependability, and security of a high-speed wireless protection sensor system and its capability for a wireless fast bus tripping scheme. It details how Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative used this technology in a substation to reduce costs by avoiding equipment replacement and field wiring changes while improving worker safety.

    Authors

    • Eric McCollum, Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative
    • Kei Hao
    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Jeremy Blair
    • David Keckalo

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Date Code: 20180831
    Field Experience With an Ultra-High-Speed Line Relay and Traveling-Wave Fault Locator

    This paper shares an Indian utility’s field experience with ultra-high-speed protection and traveling-wave fault locating. It discusses a pilot installation of line protective relays with these capabilities and presents the performance of both protection and fault locating functions for internal faults on the pilot line.

    Authors

    • Sthitaprajnyan Sharma
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180830
    Microgrid Control System Protects University Campus From Grid Blackouts

    This paper presents a case study of a microgrid control system developed, validated, tested, and commissioned for the University of California San Diego. The system provides the ability to detect and decouple during utility disturbances, operate in islanded conditions, and provide resynchronization to the grid.

    Authors

    • John Dilliot, University of California San Diego
    • Ashish Upreti
    • Bharath Nayak
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180830
    Addressing Analog Leased Line Obsolescence by Preserving Protection Channel Performance Over Ethernet

    Telecommunications carriers are ending support for analog leased line services and migrating users to Ethernet-based circuits. This paper presents a solution to the migration challenge based on a technology called virtual synchronous network (VSN) and describes how the utility Consumers Energy validated this solution during trials that used leased Ethernet circuits.

    Authors

    • Jonathan Geurink, Consumers Energy
    • Kenneth Fodero
    • Paul Robertson

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • MIPSYCON
    • PEAC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Date Code: 20180828
    GSE Experience With a Country-Wide Distributed Remedial Action Scheme for Power System Protection and Control

    Georgian State Electrosystem implemented a distributed remedial action scheme (RAS) to maintain power system stability in the Republic of Georgia. This RAS was based on customized operating principles devised specifically for Georgia’s power system. This paper describes the genesis of the project, the initial requirements, the reason a distributed architecture was selected, performance indicators, and operation examples.

    Authors

    • Alexander Didbaridze, Georgian State Electrosystem
    • Vladimer Korganashvili, Georgian State Electrosystem
    • Fernando Calero
    • Pedro Loza
    • Alejandro Carbajal

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Date Code: 20180827
    Traveling-Wave Fault Locating for Multiterminal and Hybrid Transmission Lines

    This paper presents how two-terminal traveling-wave fault-locating (TWFL) methods can be applied to multiterminal and hybrid lines. Laboratory test results and field events from Bonneville Power Administration are discussed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed fault-locating method.

    Authors

    • Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
    • Yajian Tong
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Presented At

    2018
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180824
    World-Class Engineering: Designing for Quality, Reliability, Maintenance, and Supply Chain Management Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    This paper shows how to apply multiple-criteria decision analysis techniques, such as the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to integrate world-class manufacturing principles into the circuit design process while alleviating the increased complexity of design decisions. Systematic use of AHP in circuit design increases the quality and value of designs while reducing the cost of development.

    Author

    • T. C. Mallett
    Date Code: 20180815
    Testing Traveling-Wave Line Protection and Fault Locators

    This paper presents practical solutions for testing traveling wave-based (TW-based) relays and fault locators, including a TW relay test set and relay event playback functionality. Both approaches are capable of performing end-to-end testing when an absolute time reference is used.

    Authors

    • A. Guzmán
    • G. Smelich
    • Z. Sheffield
    • D. Taylor

    Presented At

    2018
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20180813
    Time-Domain Elements Optimize the Security and Performance of Transformer Protection

    Magnetizing inrush creates a spurious operating current in 87T protection. Early 87T relays used harmonics for security during inrush. Today, we can design algorithms that distinguish directly between inrush and fault currents. By using the new algorithms, we improve the sensitivity and speed of 87T protection and maintain security for transformers with cores built from improved steels.

    Authors

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Douglas Taylor

    Presented At

    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180813
    Generator Third-Harmonic Protection Explained

    This paper compares the performance of different third-harmonic schemes and shows how these schemes can be applied to provide secure and sensitive stator winding coverage. It also provides additional guidance regarding learning algorithms and coordination with injection schemes.

    Authors

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Jason Young

    Presented At

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180726
    Microgrid Systems: Design, Control Functions, Modeling, and Field Experience

    This paper describes the authors’ experience in designing, installing, and testing microgrid control systems.

    Authors

    • S. Manson
    • K. G. Ravikumar
    • S. K. Raghupathula

    Presented At

    2017
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    2018
    • Grid of the Future
    Date Code: 20180726
    How SDN Can Improve Cybersecurity in OT Networks

    This paper discusses the differences between implementing cybersecurity measures in information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) networks. It introduces software-defined networking (SDN) technology and describes how SDN can be used to build a robust and secure OT network.

    Author

    • Colin Gray

    Presented At

    2018
    • CEPSI
    2019
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Date Code: 20180720
    CCVT Failures and Their Effects on Distance Relays

    This paper reviews three unique CCVT failure events and discusses relay performance during these failures.

    Authors

    • Sophie Gray, CenterPoint Energy
    • Derrick Haas
    • Ryan McDaniel

    Presented At

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Date Code: 20180718
    Modern Power System Automation for Transmission Substations

    This paper discusses an automation system consisting of intelligent electronic devices programmed to exchange information using various protocols to control, protect, and monitor the entire substation.

    Authors

    • G. M. Asim Akhtar
    • Muhammad Sheraz
    • Ali Safwan
    • M. Akhil Fazil
    • Firas El Yassine

    Presented At

    2018
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Date Code: 20180626
    Power Management and Control System – Insights Into Design and Testing

    Keeping in mind the future need of an intelligent power management and control system (PMCS) for smart grid applications, this paper discusses proven design concepts and reliable hardware-in-the-loop testing via a real-time digital simulator. The paper presents various PMCS building blocks, including generation control systems, voltage control systems, an islanding control system, tie-line control, high-speed generation shedding and runback, high-speed load shedding based on contingency and underfrequency, and autosynchronization systems.

    Authors

    • Maaz Kazmi
    • G.M. Asim Akhtar

    Presented At

    2018
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Date Code: 20180626
    Is Your Clock Ticking All the Time? Characterizing Substation-Hardened Clocks for Automation

    This paper describes common failure modes for substation clocks and their recovery mechanisms. It also describes test setups with pass/fail criteria to characterize substation-hardened clocks under conditions of electrical and environmental stress.

    Authors

    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Larry Thoma
    • Ray Rice
    • Dan Rippon

    Presented At

    2016
    • PEAC
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Date Code: 20180625
    Testing Superimposed-Component and Traveling-Wave Line Protection

    This paper presents practical solutions for commissioning testing, including end-to-end testing, of ultra-high-speed relays that use traveling waves and incremental quantities. The paper reviews the relay operating principles and derives adequate testing requirements. It then introduces, explains, and illustrates a testing method that relies on superposition of traveling waves and low-bandwidth signals. The method uses a separate test set to generate sharp current and voltage pulses to represent traveling waves and superimposes them on the low-bandwidth signals provided by a traditional relay test set. The method uses test software to control and synchronize both test sets.

    Authors

    • Thomas Hensler, OMICRON electronics GmbH
    • Christopher Pritchard, OMICRON electronics GmbH
    • Normann Fischer
    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Date Code: 20180618
    Design and Implementation of Generation Control System for an Offshore Platform

    This paper presents a tested generation control system that was designed and implemented to adapt to a generation system with multiple inertias, islands, control modes, and voltage levels that will tolerate system contingencies.

    Authors

    • Srinath Raghavan
    • Rekha Jagaduri
    • Srikar Malladi
    • Pedro Heliodoro Sobesobo Dacosta, Marathon Oil Company

    Presented At

    2018
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20180426
    New Advancements in Power Flow Regulating Tap-Changer Control Systems for Phase-Shifting Transformers

    This paper describes new developments in power flow regulating tap-changer control systems for phase-shifting transformers (PSTs), which are also called phase angle regulating (PAR) transformers. This paper discusses recent advancements in the control technology and highlights a particularly challenging application of two parallel PSTs installed on San Diego Gas & Electric's 230 kV transmission system.

    Authors

    • Bill Cook, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Michael Thompson
    • Kamal Garg

    Presented At

    2018
    • International Conference of Doble Clients
    Date Code: 20180426
    Case Study: Deployment of 300 Smart Motor Control Centers

    This paper describes the design of, and the lessons learned from, a deployment of 300 smart motor control centers for a large oil and gas project in Eurasia. Arc-flash and conventional protection schemes were provided. Manufacturing, testing, and design methods are discussed.

    Authors

    • Praveen Subramanian
    • Scott Manson

    Presented At

    2018
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20180419
    Case Study: Radio Application in a Smart Grid System for a Brownfield Onshore Dispersed Oil Field

    This paper discusses the implementation of a smart grid system for a large dispersed oil field using radios as its communications network. The solution includes high-speed load shedding, online monitoring, event reporting, oscillography, and engineering access. This paper also discusses the process used to design and test the radio technology, including the evaluation of its success metrics, network security, radio path study, and optimization.

    Authors

    • Kei Hao
    • Niraj Shah
    • Nevil Herbert, Chevron

    Presented At

    2018
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20180418
    Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Electrical Protection and Control Systems

    This paper describes the design, technology, model development, and overall validation of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for the largest oil and gas project in the world. Lessons learned and results from recent testing are shared.

    Authors

    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
    • Roy Hamilton, Chevron
    • Anshuman Mallya, Chevron
    • Michael Mendiola, Chevron

    Presented At

    2018
    • PCIC
    Date Code: 20180418
    Deterministic Communications for Protection Applications Over Packet-Based Wide-Area Networks

    This paper introduces a deterministic packet transport method of achieving guaranteed latency for critical traffic being transported over packet-based wide-area networks. The method is standard-agnostic, and it elegantly addresses the challenge of migrating time-division multiplexing-based protection circuits to Ethernet without impacting the performance of the network.

    Authors

    • Kenneth Fodero
    • Christopher Huntley
    • Paul Robertson

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    • PAC World Americas
    • IEEE ROC&C
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • RVP-AI
    Date Code: 20180323
    Considerations and Benefits of Using Five Zones for Distance Protection

    This paper discusses application considerations for communications-assisted line protective relays using five distance zones. This discussion includes how modern microprocessor-based relays can benefit the power system when properly applied to pilot protection and backup step-distance schemes.

    Authors

    • Ricardo Abboud
    • Jordan Bell
    • Brian Smyth

    Presented At

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PAC World Conference
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20180313
    Line Current Differential Relay Response to a Direct Lightning Strike on a Phase Conductor

    This paper describes an event in which lightning struck a phase conductor of a 345 kV transmission line and discharged current into the phase conductor, but the magnitude of the lightning discharge was insufficient to lead to an insulation breakdown. The paper examines and explains the response of two different line current differential protective relays during such an event.

    Authors

    • Matthew Boecker, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Glenn Hargrave, CPS Energy
    • Swagata Das
    • Normann Fischer
    • Veselin Skendzic

    Presented At

    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20180308
    Electromagnetic Torque From Event Report Data – A Measure of Machine Performance

    This paper demonstrates how electromagnetic torque responses can be used to measure the impact of events on a motor in a power system. The paper shows examples of calculating electromagnetic torque using oscillographic event report data obtained from digital motor protection.

    Authors

    • Dale Finney
    • Derrick Haas

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20180305
    Back to the Basics – Event Analysis Using Symmetrical Components

    This paper highlights the use of symmetrical components for simplifying the analysis of events with non-classic fault waveforms. It first provides a refresher on symmetrical component theory and then analyzes three real-world events using a symmetrical component-based event analysis approach.

    Author

    • Amanvir Sudan

    Presented At

    2018
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20180301
    Accurate and Economical Traveling-Wave Fault Locating Without Communications

    This paper describes a single-ended traveling-wave-based fault-locating method that works with currents only and explains how to perform fault locating manually using ultra-high-resolution fault records from any recording device. This paper also presents laboratory test results as well as field cases in which line crews found the actual faults.

    Authors

    • Armando Guzmán
    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Yajian Tong
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • RVP-AI
    Date Code: 20180221
    Comparison of Third-Harmonic Stator Ground Protection Schemes

    This paper compares the performance of different third-harmonic schemes and shows how these schemes can be applied to provide secure and sensitive stator winding coverage.

    Authors

    • R. Chowdhury
    • D. Finney
    • N. Fischer

    Presented At

    2018
    • DPSP
    Date Code: 20180216
    Analyzing Faulted Transmission Lines: Phase Components as an Alternative to Symmetrical Components

    This paper demonstrates how to analyze faulted transmission lines using phase components (Phase A, Phase B, Phase C) as an alternative to symmetrical components (positive-sequence, negative-sequence, and zero-sequence). The paper explores both steady-state and time-domain applications, with emphasis on generating reliable test signals. Advantages of the phase-domain approach are discussed.

    Authors

    • Steven Chase
    • Sumit Sawai
    • Amol Kathe

    Presented At

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Date Code: 20180213