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White Papers


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Author
Date Code
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A New Use for Fault Indicators - SEL Revolutionizes Distribution System Protection

This paper discusses the benefits of applying the new SEL-FT50/SEL-FR12 Fault Transmitter and Receiver System to enhance distribution system protection.

Authors

  • Steve T. Watt
  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Peter Selejan
Date Code: 20170606
Software-Defined Networking Changes the Paradigm for Mission-Critical Operational Technology Networks

The principles of software-defined networking (SDN) offer significant benefits for operational technology (OT) networking by addressing the limitations of traditional Ethernet. Read more in this white paper.

Author

  • Paul Robertson
Date Code: 20170214
Security Through Simplicity in Digital Substations

This paper provides a brief overview of SEL’s Time-Domain Link Technology (TiDL) and IEC 61850 as digital substation solutions and assesses the cybersecurity posture of each.

Author

  • Joe Casebolt
Date Code: 20161122
Modbus Register Addressing and Data Type Variations

This white paper describes the early days of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), the introduction of Modbus protocol, and some of the challenges involved today with device interoperability, specifically challenges related to register addressing and data type formatting.

Author

  • Chris Bontje
Date Code: 20160523
Leveraging Security – Using the SEL RTAC's Built-In Security Features

This white paper discusses SEL Real-Time Automation Controller (RTAC) security concepts and provides configuration examples to empower engineers, technicians, and security personnel to protect critical cyberassets.

Author

  • Darrin Kite
Date Code: 20160111
Automating Protection System Monitoring and Verification With the SEL RTAC

This white paper describes how to use the SEL Real-Time Automation Controller (RTAC) to build an automated system to continuously monitor and validate many of the components identified in the NERC PRC-005 standard.

Authors

  • Darrin Kite
  • Robin Jenkins
Date Code: 20160111
An SEL Approach to Modifying Transformer Protection for Nuclear Stations

This white paper addresses the design considerations for modifying transformer protection at an existing nuclear station and the SEL equipment that can be used to implement that design.

Author

  • Larry Wright
Date Code: 20151117
Securing Critical Industrial Systems With SEL Solutions

The purpose of this paper is to detail the cybersecurity risks on industrial control systems and discuss how to detect and counter these risks by applying processes and technology to keep these systems safely operating.

Authors

  • Tom Bartman
  • Kevin Carson
Date Code: 20150406
NAND Flash Memory Reliability in Embedded Computer Systems

This white paper addresses the two main reliability concerns in NAND flash storage, what type of NAND flash memory is best suited for embedded computer systems, and how to optimize computer systems for maximum reliability of NAND flash storage.

Author

  • Ian Olson
Date Code: 20141210
Tutorial on Symmetrical Components Part 2: Answer Key

This white paper provides both theoretical and real-world examples with questions and solutions that can be used to gain experience with symmetrical components.

Authors

  • Ariana Amberg
  • Alex Rangel
Date Code: 20140506
SEL Recommendations on Periodic Maintenance Testing of Protective Relays

This paper provides recommendations for testing SEL relays and guidance for developing a test program that is compliant with NERC PRC-005-2.

Author

  • Karl Zimmerman
Date Code: 20140324
Functional Overview and Operating Principles for the AR-OH and AR360 Overhead AutoRANGER Fault Indicators

This document defines AutoRANGER® trip logic, inrush restraint (IR), installation considerations, fault indication modes, principles of operation, battery conservation, and test/reset methods.

Authors

  • Tyson Salewske
  • Anthony Patenaude
Date Code: 20140217
Advanced Event Analysis Tutorial Part 2: Answer Key

Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find root cause. This session provides several advanced real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Author

  • Karl Zimmerman
Date Code: 20130724
Advanced Event Analysis Tutorial Part 1: Questions

Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find root cause. This session provides several advanced real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Author

  • Karl Zimmerman
Date Code: 20130724
Tutorial on Symmetrical Components Part 1: Examples

This white paper provides both theoretical and real-world examples with questions that can be used to gain experience with symmetrical components. The full solutions to these questions can be found in the white paper "Tutorial on Symmetrical Components, Part 2: Solutions," available for download at http://www.selinc.com.

Authors

  • Ariana Amberg
  • Alex Rangel
Date Code: 20130422
Event Analysis Tutorial Part 2: Answer Key

Event reports have been an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays since the initial introduction of the technology. The days of unknown root cause for an operation, lengthy outages, or unexplained test results are largely over due to this tool and the ability of engineers and technicians to use it. We must practice to become proficient at analyzing event reports. This session provides real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Author

  • David Costello
Date Code: 20120113
Event Analysis Tutorial Part 1: Problem Statements

Event reports have been an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays since the initial introduction of the technology. The days of unknown root cause for an operation, lengthy outages, or unexplained test results are largely over due to this tool and the ability of engineers and technicians to use it. We must practice to become proficient at analyzing event reports. This session provides real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Author

  • David Costello
Date Code: 20120113
RTAC System Performance


Author

  • Francisco Chumbiauca
Date Code: 20111102
The Importance of ECC Memory in Your Substation Computer

This white paper addresses another method of increasing the reliability of substation computers designing them to use error-correcting code (ECC) memory. The use of ECC memory minimizes the specific memory error class of single bit flips. Almost all server-class computers use ECC memory, but very few substation computers use ECC memory.

Author

  • John Harrell
Date Code: 20100716
Expand Synchrophasor Capabilities With the Substation Phasor Data Concentrator

A minimal synchrophasor system consists of phasor measurement units (PMUs) and integrates the collected data into centralized operator displays. This approach, while providing an immediate benefit over existing supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, misses many opportunities for additional power system improvements.

Author

  • Greg Zweigle
Date Code: 20100218
The Versatile SEL-2505 Remote I/O Module

This white paper discusses how the versatile SEL-2505 Remote I/O Module can move contact information and control and monitor remote equipment safely, reliably, and economically.

Author

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
Date Code: 20090505
Comparison of Mirrored Bits Communications and Ethernet IEC 61850 GOOSE for Teleprotection Using Spread-Spectrum Radio

This paper shows that the specific considerations of using ISM band spread-spectrum radio impact the protection scheme and give Mirrored Bits® communications a significant advantage over IEC 61850 GOOSE messages.

Author

  • Roy Moxley
Date Code: 20071112
Fly Safe and Level: Customer Examples in Implementing Dual Primary Protection Systems

In this paper, the basic concepts of reliability are investigated, and the reliable use of two SEL devices as primary and backup protective relays is promoted.
 

Author

  • David Costello
Date Code: 20070628
Methods for Detecting Ground Faults in Medium-Voltage Distribution Power Systems

This paper reviews ground fault protection and detection methods for distribution systems.

Authors

  • Normann Fischer
  • Daqing Hou
Date Code: 20061010
SEL-421 Performance As Both a Protective Relay and a Phasor Measurement Unit

The SEL-421 has the unique ability to provide both line protection and Synchrophasor measurement. A frequent question is: how does this dual functionality affect relay performance?

Authors

  • Mike Bryson
  • Satish Samineni
Date Code: 20050418
SEL-3021 Serial Encrypting Transceiver Is Immune to the SHA-1 Hashing Algorithm Compromise

Several people asked SEL what this supposed breach of the algorithm means to users of the SEL-3021 Serial Encrypting Transceiver. The short answer is that the reported SHA-1 compromise does not impact the SEL-3021.

Author

  • David Whitehead
Date Code: 20050407
Industrial Application of the SEL-734 Meter

The Facilities Department at Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL) oversees and maintains the power system for seven buildings totaling over 250,000 square feet. This facility in Pullman, Washington, is the world headquarters of SEL. As a result of the company’s growing need for power, the Facilities and Property Manager initiated an investigation of the power system for the Manufacturing building.

Author

  • Eddie Schweitzer
Date Code: 20050106
Improving Power System Reliability Using Multifunction Protective Relays

Multifunction protective relays include comprehensive monitoring capabilities that can detect the alert and emergency states, minimize system disturbance and prevent system collapse.

Author

  • Armando Guzman
Date Code: 20030916
SEL Communications and Integration White Paper

As part of our overall mission to make electric power safer, more reliable, and more economical, SEL develops and provides innovative, simple to use, robust technologies to protect, automate, control, monitor, and analyze power systems. An essential element of this strategy is the development of appropriate communications technologies and protocols.

Author

  • David Dolezilek
Date Code: 20011023
Choosing Between Communications Processors, RTUs, and PLCs as Substation Automation Controllers

Communications processors, RTUs, and PLCs are used as integration and automation controllers around the world. In order to appreciate the differences, it is appropriate to consider all aspects of integration and automation needs within the power system.

Author

  • David J. Dolezilek
Date Code: 20001017
Commonwealth Edison Jefferson Substation Integrated IED Design Description

Case study and description of Commonwealth Edison Jefferson 138 kV/69 kV substation instrumentation and control design using SEL protection, control, automation and communications products and technology to provide substation SCADA, monitoring, and automation.

Authors

  • David J. Dolezilek
  • Darold Woodward
Date Code: 20000501