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In the interest of reducing transformer differential misoperations, we share in this technical paper practical lessons we have learned through experience with commissioning and relay event report analysis.
Through analysis of event reports recorded by relays, this paper will present several examples of settings that led to unintended operation of distribution protection, including transformer delta-winding residual overcurrent protection, transformer high-voltage phase overcurrent protection, and others.
This paper discusses how to use event data (voltages, currents, and fault location) from relays at two ends of a transmission line to calculate positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence line impedances. Impedances calculated from real event data can be used to validate relay settings and short-circuit models.
In the interest of reducing transmission line relay misoperations, this technical paper shares practical lessons learned through experience analyzing transmission line relay event reports.
This paper analyzes real-world event report data in the interest of uncovering valuable lessons for setting and commissioning generator relays.
This paper investigates several real-world events with data from both motor starting reports and event records. The data demonstrate the value of having devices capable of recording motor data during starts and fault events and of capturing and reviewing such data for the purpose of determining root cause.
The paper describes a bus protection application for a 1,500 MVA nuclear power plant with external fault current levels exceeding 300 kA. The CTs were inside the generator step-up (GSU) delta winding which challenged bus protection application. This paper talks about the EMT modeling and the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing performed to test the differential element security for external faults, dependability for internal faults, and alarming for a CT failure condition.
This paper discusses system architecture, hardware, and communication requirements for both decoupling and synchronization schemes, along with the results of a test to assess the effectiveness of an autosynchronization and decoupling system in a controlled environment using a control hardware-in-the-loop (cHIL) testing methodology. Using microgrid control systems, the most efficient forms of islanding and autosynchronization solutions can be developed.
This paper provides a step-by-step guide to comply with NERC PRC-027-1 by exploring the following areas: an introduction and purpose of the standard, a systematic approach to developing processes and protection settings, common and unique coordination challenges, and methods to automate repetitive tasks. Furthermore, the process put forth in this paper was used as the basis of the PRC-027-1 compliance program for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD). Real-world challenges associated with this process from an end-user point of view are also discussed.
This paper presents a customized methodology for relay system selection.