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Do IT Cryptographic Security Controls Work for Energy Systems?

This paper discusses reasons why many security techniques commonly applied in IT systems and based on cryptography may
be unsuitable for application in critical portions of energy systems. It proposes for system owners an approach to designing energy systems that separates system elements into those that are dynamic and static, and it builds on that approach with recommendations for OT cryptographic security controls in energy system networks.

Авторы

  • Dan Gunter, Dragos, Inc.
  • Josh Carlson, Dragos, Inc.
  • Casey Roberts, Duke Energy Corp.
  • Colin Gordon
  • George Masters
Код даты: 20210421
Double-Ended Traveling-Wave Fault Locating Without Relay-to-Relay Communications

This paper discusses how a transmission system operator in Spain successfully applied double-ended traveling-wave-based fault locating (DETWFL) offline when relay-to-relay communications were unavailable. It also discusses the possibility of using DNP3 over Ethernet to retrieve event information, allowing for automatic DETWFL calculations offline. Finally, it includes the analysis of a B-phase-to-ground fault to illustrate the performance of the applied offline DETWFL method.

Авторы

  • David López Cortón (Red Eléctrica de España)
  • Jorge Vaquero Melado (Red Eléctrica de España)
  • Jesús Cruz
  • Richard Kirby
  • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
  • Gianfranco Patti
  • Greg Smelich

Представлено на

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210325
Finding Common Ground: A Case Study of Phantom Currents and Ground Loops

In February of 2018, a current differential relay protecting a 138 kV/69 kV autotransformer tripped for an out-of-zone ground fault. System conditions were such that the low side of the autotransformer was open, but the relay event reports showed fault currents present on the low side. Initial investigation hinted at a CT secondary circuit problem, and three more faults that occurred the following week helped narrow it down. This paper describes the investigation into these faults, how root cause was found, and how ground potential rise can cause phantom currents to flow in relay CT circuits.

Авторы

  • Matthew Boecker, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Jared Candelaria
  • Ariana Hargrave

Представлено на

2020
  • WPRC
2021
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210324
Field Experience With Open-Phase Testing at Sites With Inverter-Based Resources

In this paper, we analyze notable field events recorded during open-phase tests at solar facilities. These events reveal system overvoltages and excessive harmonics at several sites. To address these concerns, we use field events to demonstrate the effectiveness of voltage-based detection schemes. These schemes consider the total harmonic distortion of the phase voltages and a zero-sequence overvoltage element.

Авторы

  • James Gahan (Cypress Creek Renewables)
  • Ariel Valdez (Dominion Energy)
  • Brett Cockerham
  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • John Town

Представлено на

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210312
Cyber Vulnerability Assessment of a Digital Secondary System in an Electrical Substation

Modern digital secondary system technology uses digital communications among relays and remote digital sensors over high-speed fiber connections to perform fault detection and trip circuit control. A cyber vulnerability assessment of each proposed communications design is essential to evaluate the energy control system’s reliability. Many cybersecurity technologies from numerous industries are promoted for use in DSS communications with unknown impacts. This paper introduces appropriate metrics and a cyber vulnerability assessment framework, using the attack tree method, to compare the cyber risk of available technologies to determine the dependability and security of digital control and protective trip circuits.

Авторы

  • Mauricio Silveira
  • David Dolezilek
  • Scott Wenke
  • Jaya Yellajosula

Представлено на

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210311
Event Investigation of 69 kV Double-Circuit Faults

This paper presents a case study of double-circuit faults on SDG&E’s 69 kV system that caused multiple relays to operate. The paper explains the relay operations, focusing on the directional element, and concludes with lessons learned. The paper also emphasizes system-wide, time-coordinated event report analysis, which was indispensable to the root cause analysis.

Авторы

  • Ahsan Mirza, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Christopher Bolton, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Girolamo Rosselli, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Sergio Flores, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Amanvir Sudan

Представлено на

2020
  • WPRC
2021
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210311
Line Current Measurement at Dual-Breaker Terminals: Challenges and Solutions

This paper explains the challenges of measuring line current accurately at dual-breaker terminals and the impact on line protection. It then discusses solutions to improve relay security at dual-breaker terminals.

Авторы

  • Michael Lampe (Lower Colorado River Authority)
  • Genardo Corpuz (Lower Colorado River Authority)
  • Swagata Das
  • Ariana Hargrave

Представлено на

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210310
The Need for Faster Underfrequency Load Shedding

This paper proposes a new rate-of-change-of-frequency scheme that allows for fast underfrequency load shedding to minimize frequency excursions. It also presents simulations showing that the scheme is secure from misoperations for source transmission line operations.

Авторы

  • Kevin W. Jones, Xcel Energy
  • Katriana Webber, Xcel Energy
  • Krithika Bhuvaneshwaran

Представлено на

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210310
Application Considerations for Protecting Three-Terminal Transmission Lines

Three-terminal transmission lines pose protection challenges not encountered with more familiar two-terminal lines. A three-terminal line in Oncor Electric Delivery’s power system is considered in this paper. Different topologies and contingencies affect infeed and outfeed levels, requiring careful selection of protection element settings and directional element polarizing quantities. Lessons learned are generalized so they may be applied to optimize security and dependability in any three-terminal line application.

Авторы

  • Robert Jimerson (Oncor Electric Delivery)
  • Alex Hulen
  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • Neeraj Karnik
  • Bernard Matta

Представлено на

2021
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Код даты: 20210304
The Missing Link: How CT and VT Connection Errors Affect Protection

This paper reviews the fundamentals of CT and VT connections. It discusses several basic and advanced testing and commissioning approaches that can help find common wiring errors and improve protection. The paper describes several actual field events of undesired or unexpected relay performance due to improper CT or VT circuit connections, setting or drawing errors, and details on how testing and commissioning checks would have prevented these events from happening.

Авторы

  • Marcel Taberer
  • Praveen Iyer
  • Karl Zimmerman

Представлено на

2021
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PowerTest Conference
Код даты: 20210304
Settings Considerations for Distance Elements in Line Protection Applications

This paper is a comprehensive review of setting considerations for distance elements in line protection applications and discusses the following:

  • Zone 1 element settings, especially in weak systems (high SIR).
  • Coordination of distance settings in pilot schemes in applications with high SIR.
  • Setting underreaching elements for security and overreaching elements for dependability for multiterminal and untransposed lines and lines with mutual coupling.
  • Setting the resistive reach of quadrilateral distance elements.
  • Impact of high SIR including ground potential rise, stray voltages in control cables, relay transient accuracy, CCVT transients, and other factors.

    Подготовил

    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Представлено на

    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20210303
    Permissive or Blocking Pilot Protection Schemes? How to Have It Both Ways

    This paper reviews permissive and blocking pilot schemes for protection of transmission lines. It covers principles of operation, settings considerations, the importance of coordinating the forward and the reverse fault detectors, applications to multiterminal lines, and single-pole tripping. The paper also describes add-ons used for dependability of the permissive schemes: open-breaker echo logic, weak-infeed logic, and channel failure logic. The paper introduces a crossover permissive-blocking scheme that eliminates the need for additional engineering required by many applications of permissive schemes, while allowing fast tripping without the coordination time. The scheme is easy to configure and test, and it uses two pilot bits in a multibit digital protection channel. 

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Normann Fischer
    • Armando Guzmán

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20210301
    Using High-Resolution Oscillography to Improve the Performance of Controlled Switching for Transformers

    This paper describes the design and commissioning of a controlled switching scheme to energize and de-energize a 485 MVA, 220/18 kV transformer. It highlights the use of high-resolution oscillography to supplement breaker timing tests to obtain a critical breaker advance-time setting for the scheme. The results show that by using a controlled switching device and fine-tuning its breaker advance-time setting, inrush currents exceeding 6 pu were reduced to less than 0.2 pu.

    Авторы

    • Vetti Bala, Genesis Energy
    • Brett Hampson
    • Ritwik Chowdhury

    Представлено на

    2019
    • EEA Conference
    2021
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    Код даты: 20210226
    Stator Ground Protection for Multiple High-Impedance Grounded Generators Sharing a Common Bus

    Typical 100 percent stator ground protection schemes face reliability challenges when applied to multiple high-impedance grounded generators that share a common bus or generator step-up winding. This paper presents a method that allows third-harmonic and injection schemes to be effectively applied in this situation and also presents two complementary methods to facilitate selectivity when protecting units that share a bus.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Jason Young
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Subhash Patel

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Код даты: 20210224
    Determining CT Requirements for Generator and Transformer Protective Relays

    This paper provides insight into the similarities and differences in the IEEE and IEC CT sizing requirements for generator and transformer differential applications and presents easy-to-use CT requirements and setting guidance for secure protective relay application. An application example is included.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20210129
    Transmission Line Protection for Systems With Inverter-Based Resources

    In this paper, we provide application guidance to set conventional line protection schemes reliably in systems with inverter-based resources (IBRs). The guidance is based on a study performed as part of a collaborative effort by NERC, Sandia National Laboratories, four IBR manufacturers, and two relay manufacturers. The IBR manufacturers provided “real-code” models for their Type 3 Wind, Type 4 Wind, and PV Solar, which were used in PSCAD simulations and subsequently played back through relay hardware. The paper shares relay oscillography to explain the challenges and solutions.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20210127
    Simplifying PRC-026 Compliance With Practical Solutions You Least Expect

    This paper offers practical corrective action plans (CAPs) that can provide PRC-026 compliance in nearly all cases without replacing the relays or preventing trips for true out-of-step power swings. The paper discusses various types of power swing blocking (PSB) and out-of-step tripping (OST) schemes and other features available in multifunction line relays that can help with compliance. Many of the CAPs presented are not the solutions you expect.

    Авторы

    • Pratheek Annamdevula
    • Austin Thurman
    • Michael Thompson
    • Brian Smyth
    • Demetrios Tziouvaras

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20210125
    Combining Battery and AC Sources for More Reliable Control Power

    This paper presents an approach to increasing the reliability of auxiliary dc control circuits by combining multiple sources and providing ride-through capabilities in the event of a loss of all input sources. It highlights technical benefits and applications while showing how increased source diversity can improve the availability of dc control power for protection and control, as well as for tripping circuit breakers.

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • David E. Whitehead
    • Michael Thompson
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
    • Austin Wade
    • Bruce Hall
    • Sean Robertson

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20210122
    The Response of a Transformer Differential Relay to Internal Faults While Influenced by Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    When influenced by quasi-dc ground currents, the magnetization characteristics of wye-connected transformers produce second harmonics that may approach or surpass second-harmonic levels commonly experienced during transformer inrush events. In this paper, we discuss a saturable transformer model simulation composed to create a matrix of tests that varied the magnitude of transformer internal fault current and the magnitude of quasi-dc ground current. We applied test currents on two transformer differential relay designs. One set of test currents was to validate that the relays remain secure for geomagnetically induced current (GIC) saturation, and the other to compare how the relays perform for internal faults with varying amounts of fault resistance and increasing levels of GIC. We explore cross-harmonic blocking and harmonic restraint as variables and evaluate the relationship of the pickup levels for the operate/restraint curve. We include recommendations for possible mitigation techniques.

    Авторы

    • Andrew Mattei, Baylor University/Brazos Electric Power Cooperative, Inc.
    • Derrick Haas
    • Jared Candelaria
    • Dr. W. Mack Grady, Baylor University

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20201020
    Best of Both Worlds – Analog Principles Applied in a Digital Distance Relay

    This paper reviews the basics of coincidence timing for shaping distance element characteristics (mho and quadrilateral), explains the benefits of using coincidence timing, shows digital implementations that far surpass the dreams of analog relay designers, and presents test results from an implementation that uses the best of both worlds—analog principles implemented in a digital relay.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Chad Daniels
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Amol Kathe

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200921
    Hidden in Plain Sight: Anticipating and Avoiding Hidden Failures in Communications‑Assisted Protection

    This paper addresses concerns about unintentional and dangerous mistakes hidden in plain sight when ECS design teams implement digital trip circuits based on IEC 61850 process bus protocols. It draws parallels between the circumstances surrounding infamous failures in aerospace and aviation and the hidden dangers a lack of preparedness can produce in ECS design.

    Авторы

    • Allan McDonald, Aerospace Consultant
    • Anna Dolezilek, Role-Based Certification Consultant
    • David Dolezilek

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200911
    Case Study: How CT Saturation Due to Incorrect Point-on-Wave Switching Affects Shunt Reactor Differential Protection

    This paper examines undesired operations (UOs) of differential elements that protect shunt reactors installed on high-voltage and extra-high-voltage transmission lines, particularly UOs that occur because of a CT and CT burden mismatch. Field events and tests are included, as well as a model of the power system that illustrates system sensitivity. Different techniques for mitigating UOs are discussed.

    Авторы

    • Fabio Bassi, Terna Rete Italia S.p.A.
    • Gianluca Ramundo, Terna Rete Italia S.p.A.
    • Andrea Di Tomasso
    • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
    • Marcos Donolo

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200909
    Ensuring the Stability of the Belgian Grid With a Special Protection System

    This paper discusses the challenges, solutions, and design details of a special protection system (SPS) installed by the transmission system operator, Elia, in Belgium. It discusses the SPS focus on security and availability, and the hardware-in-the-loop testing of the whole system before it was commissioned.

    Авторы

    • Rodolphe Hanuise, Elia Engineering
    • Cédric Moors, Elia Engineering
    • Fernando Calero
    • Milind Malichkar
    • Eliseo Alcázar
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200904
    Case Studies of IEC 61850 Process Bus Systems Using GOOSE and Sampled Values: Recent Installations and Research

    This paper illustrates design and operational considerations for use when replacing elements of hardwired protective relay trip circuits with digital messaging via process bus networks based on IEC 61850 GOOSE, Sampled Values, and Precision Time Protocol. The paper introduces topology designs and process bus communications designs in use at Southern California Edison and Commonwealth Edison Company, as well as research being done at Puget Sound Energy.

    Авторы

    • John Bettler, Commonwealth Edison Company
    • Jesse Silva, Southern California Edison
    • Dan Morman, Puget Sound Energy
    • Ricardo Abboud
    • David Bowen
    • Ed Cenzon
    • David Dolezilek

    Представлено на

    2020
    • MIPSYCON
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200903
    Solving Synchronization Challenges Using Distributed Signal Acquisition With Fiber-Optic Links

    The challenges of designing synchronizing systems for utility and industrial power systems have become more complex. Traditional synchronizing technology limits the possible solutions to these challenges. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of conventional synchronizing systems and show the advantages of using the advanced automatic synchronizer (A25A) with new digital secondary system (DSS) technology as a practical solution.

    Авторы

    • Sruty Singh
    • Michael Thompson
    • Hardesh Khatri

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200903
    Analysis of In-Service Line Current Differential Protection Circuits: Comparing SONET With Packet-Switched Network Performance

    Many utilities are migrating their network infrastructure from TDM/SONET to packet-based technologies such as MPLS. This paper uses the alpha plane with a custom phase angle comparison approach to study live data taken over a multi-week period from Central Lincoln PUD’s in-service line current differential protective relays. The paper compares the performance of SONET with a packet network before and after migration and show it is possible to achieve SONET-grade performance over packed-based network using virtual synchronous networking (VSN) technology.

    Авторы

    • Ron Beck, Central Lincoln PUD
    • Paul Robertson
    • Troy Ledford
    • Cole Salo

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20200902
    Reliable Protection Using a System Preservation Scheme

    This paper describes the design and testing of a system preservation scheme on an islanded system at Red Dog Mine in Alaska, and includes the considerations necessary to the unique circumstances of the system.

    Авторы

    • Mehul Joshi, Teck Alaska Inc.
    • Scott L. Barndt
    • Alaap Anujan
    • Ceeman Vellaithurai
    • Mahipathi Appannagari
    • Brandon Nafsinger

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200902
    Implementing a Microgrid Using Standard Utility Control Equipment

    This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of the microgrid controls for the Duke Energy McAlpine Creek microgrid project and the lessons learned from its implementation.

    Авторы

    • Tom Fenimore, Duke Energy
    • Andy Gould
    • Larry Wright

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Americas
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2018
    • Clemson PSC
    Код даты: 20200722
    Improvements in Generator Breaker Failure Protection During Low-Current Conditions

    This paper discusses the challenges with generator breaker failure schemes and proposes three methods of improving generator breaker failure protection under low-current conditions. The paper also provides a detailed analysis of breaker pole stuck conditions.

    Авторы

    • Matchyaraju Alla
    • Sumit Sawai
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20200717
    Using Real-Time Testing Tools to Baseline the Performance of OT Networks for High-Speed Communications

    In this paper, we discuss the various operational technology tools available for the performance analysis of mission‐critical Ethernet-based communications networks. We describe techniques for simple test cases that provide performance quantification of the communications path in terms of determinism, latency, and availability, using as an example tests performed at the Enel Smart Grid Lab (created by E‐Distribuzione in Milan).

    Авторы

    • Luca Delli Carpini, E‐Distribuzione
    • Amandeep Kalra
    • David Dolezilek
    • Giorgio Vielmini
    • Tim Grigg

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20200716
    Adaptive Coordination Schemes to Reduce Fault Energy in Distribution Feeders Using Wireless Protection Sensors

    Many utilities with overhead distribution lines make tradeoffs when designing protection schemes. Ideally, the system minimizes fault energy by limiting fault duration in high-risk environments, yet maximizes power quality and availability in urban areas. This paper describes how these contrasting goals are achieved using wireless protection sensors to identify the faulted line section and instantly transmit fault messages to a recloser control. With this real-time information, the protection logic adapts its response for the faulted section, dynamically applying fast overcurrent elements with a truncated reclosing sequence to reduce fault energy in high-risk sections, using standard schemes elsewhere.

    Авторы

    • Kei Hao
    • David Keckalo

    Представлено на

    2021
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20200610
    Switch Onto Fault: Maintaining Dependability, Security, and Speed

    This paper discusses switch onto fault (SOTF) settings for dependable fault coverage and security for heavy load conditions when SOTF voltage reset is not available. A case study is included to illustrate the speed sacrifices made when a distance element, rather than an instantaneous element, must trip during an SOTF condition. The paper also discusses the effects of source impedance ratio and considerations during use of high-speed reclosing.

    Авторы

    • Rohith Poduval, NIPSCO
    • Ryan McDaniel
    • Sujay Dasgupta

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PowerTest Conference
    Код даты: 20200513
    Testing IEC 61850 Merging Units

    This paper presents an efficient and systematic approach for evaluating merging units. It offers engineers help, particularly during merging unit testing, in understanding certain characteristics of a merging unit and in gaining confidence with Sampled Values technology.

    Авторы

    • Qiaoyin Yang
    • David Keckalo
    • David Dolezilek
    • Ed Cenzon

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200506
    Beyond the Knee Point: A Practical Guide to CT Saturation

    This paper describes how CTs saturate in a simple and intuitive way. The paper describes symmetrical and asymmetrical saturation, remanence, the CT equivalent circuit, the CT excitation graph, ANSI ratings, and how to analyze CT performance using simple equations and tools. It then shows how to detect CT saturation in relay event reports and how relay operation can be compromised during CT saturation.

    Авторы

    • Ariana Hargrave
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Brad Heilman

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2019
    • PowerTest Conference
    Код даты: 20200501
    Fast Wind Farm Restoration Using Wireless Fault Sensors to Identify Faulted Segments

    This paper presents improvements in wind farm fault identification systems based on innovative fault sensor systems with wireless communications.

    Авторы

    • Afonso César Tavares, CPFL Renováveis
    • Andrei Coelho
    • Mauro Magalhães
    Код даты: 20200424
    Case Study: High-Density Distribution Coordination Using High-Speed Communications

    This case study, focused on Alabama Power, describes a topology-based coordination scheme that leverages the utility's high-speed communications infrastructure to provide advanced distribution protection.

    Авторы

    • Robert M. Cheney, Alabama Power
    • John T. Thorne, Alabama Power
    • Robert Van Singel
    • Andrew Hanson
    • Chris Anderson
    • Joshua Hughes

    Представлено на

    2020
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20200423
    Adaptive Loss-of-Field Protection Tailored to the Generator Capability Curve

    This paper discusses the effects of loss of field (LOF) on the generator and the connected power system. This paper also presents the implementation details of a new adaptive P-Q plane-based LOF protection for four zones.

    Авторы

    • Matchyaraju Alla
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20200311
    Lessons Learned From Generator Destructive Testing

    Avista Utilities has been in the process of upgrading a set of 8.8 MVA, 4 kV, 48-pole, 60 Hz generators at one of their hydroelectric facilities. The authors took this unique opportunity to perform destructive testing on one of these generators prior to its scheduled upgrade. This paper describes the planning and execution components of this destructive testing and also discusses the lessons learned throughout the entire process.

    Авторы

    • Calvin Howard, Avista Utilities
    • Beth Andrews, Avista Utilities
    • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities
    • Normann Fischer
    • Dale Finney
    • Matchyaraju Alla

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    2020
    • Australian Protection Symposium
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20200309
    OOPS, Out-of-Phase Synchronization

    This paper presents an out-of-phase synchronization (OOPS) protection scheme for detecting faulty generator synchronization and providing high-speed tripping. It demonstrates the performance of the scheme with a real-world event in which a steam turbine generator was synchronized 180 degrees out of phase. The paper also includes a discussion of testing methods for verifying synchronization circuits.

    Авторы

    • Kelvin Barner, Duke Energy
    • Nathan Klingerman, Duke Energy
    • Michael Thompson
    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Satish Samineni

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20200228
    New Voltage-Based Breaker Failure Scheme for Generators

    This paper describes a new breaker failure scheme for generator breakers that is based on voltage measurements to detect the failure of a generator breaker to open and separate the generator from the power system. The paper discusses details of the scheme and application and operation considerations relative to generating plant bus topology.

    Авторы

    • Michael Thompson
    • Dale Finney

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20200214
    A Practical Guide to Substation Testing Using IEC 61850 Mode and Behavior

    This paper discusses two of the most important IEC 61850 Edition 2 test features: Mode Control (widely referred to as "Test Mode") and Simulation. The paper first briefly describes the test features in Edition 2 and then illustrates the applications and guidelines for these features in depth, including potential pitfalls. Finally, the paper provides examples related to various utility domains as a practical guide to help the reader make informed choices on how to use these test features, independently or combined. The use cases include asset additions, commissioning, and multiowner systems.

    Авторы

    • Edson Hernández
    • Tovah Whitesell
    • Karen Leggett Wyszczelski

    Представлено на

    2020
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20200131
    Autoconfiguration of Microgrid Controls

    This paper describes how an autonomous microgrid control and protection system is automatically configured without human involvement. Two variants of this solution are shared: one for a rapidly deployed, mobile power system and one that integrates a fixed campus power system.

    Авторы

    • Brandon Marcum
    • Ellery Blood
    • Jason Dearien
    • Scott Manson

    Представлено на

    2020
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20200130
    Case Study: Implementing Redundant Logic Controllers in Substations

    This paper discusses the design and implementation challenges of implementing redundant logic controllers. It examines how communication channels affect data process and how reliability requirements affect design decisions. The paper also examines the decisions the implementers must make when creating a redundant controller solution. The paper includes a case study of a recent implementation, which covers a utility's decisions in implementing redundant logic controllers.

    Авторы

    • Sagar Dayabhai, CONCO Energy Solutions
    • Brian Waldron
    • Marcel van Rensburg

    Представлено на

    2020
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20200130
    New Advancements in Solar Grid Controllers

    This paper investigates several features that could be integrated into solar power plant controllers. It considers the current state of the industry and examines the technical, regulatory, and implementation challenges of potential new features in power plant controls for solar power.

    Авторы

    • Brian Waldron
    • Bryan Fazzari

    Представлено на

    2020
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20200128
    Solving Performance and Cybersecurity Challenges in Substation and Industrial Networks With Software-Defined Networking

    This paper discusses the application of software-defined networking (SDN) in a substation environment using IEC 61850 GOOSE protocol. It reviews the benefits of SDN over traditional Ethernet networking in the areas of fast failover, network visibility, network engineering, and cybersecurity.

    Авторы

    • Dalton Shaffer, City Light & Power, Inc.
    • Devin Thewlis, City Light & Power, Inc.
    • Tom Bartman
    • Tristan Atiyeh

    Представлено на

    2020
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20200128
    Simplifying Compliance: An Integrated Approach to Meeting NERC PRC-002 and PRC-005 Requirements

    This paper discusses the functional overlap between the data sets required by NERC PRC-002 and PRC-005 and provides several examples of how these data can enhance power system maintenance programs.

    Авторы

    • Darrin Kite
    • Jeff Otto
    • Isaac West

    Представлено на

    2020
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20200127
    Power System Operation and Control Solutions Using IEC 61850

    This paper describes the implementation of a circulating current scheme that uses IEC 61850 GOOSE messages to provide automatic voltage regulation for up to four paralleled power transformers.

    Подготовил

    • Brett Hampson

    Представлено на

    2018
    • CEPSI
    2019
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Код даты: 20200113
    A New Digital Filter Using Window Resizing for Protective Relay Applications

    This paper presents a design of a variable-window filter for protection applications. The filter uses a full-cycle sliding data window until a disturbance is detected, at which time the window size is considerably shortened to include only disturbance samples and exclude all pre-disturbance samples. With the passing of time, the window size grows to include more disturbance samples as they become available. When the window reaches its nominal size, it stops extending and starts sliding again. By purging the pre-disturbance data, the new filter strikes an excellent balance between protection speed and security.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Chad Daniels

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20200108
    Circuit Breaker Ratings – A Primer for Protection Engineers

    This paper explains how the X/R ratio and the relay operating time affect the asymmetrical current breaker rating. The paper proposes how to derate a breaker for the relay operating time that is shorter than the standard reference relay time of 0.5 cycle. The paper calculates the “rating loss” due to fast tripping and concludes that applying customary margins when selecting breakers may be sufficient to mitigate the effect of ultra-high-speed relays without the need to replace breakers.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Joe Rostron, Southern States, LLC

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20191122
    Using Software-Defined Networking to Build Modern, Secure IEC 61850-Based Substation Automation Systems

    This paper discusses an application of software-defined networking (SDN) to meet stringent network performance and cybersecurity requirements. It compares this application to traditional spanning-tree-based networks to show SDN's ability to meet and exceed those requirements.

    Авторы

    • Amandeep Kalra
    • David Dolezilek
    • Jerin Monzi Mathew
    • Rajkumar Raju
    • Robert Meine
    • Dinesh Pawar, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191108
    A New Digital Distance Element Implementation Using Coincidence Timing

    This paper presents a new distance protection element implementation that is based on the analogue principle of coincidence timing. The paper explains the basics of coincidence timing and the many advantages of this approach. The new algorithm has been implemented in a hardware platform and consistently operates with speed on the order of half a cycle. The paper shares laboratory test results from hardware-in-the-loop tests and illustrates the new approach using a field case.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Amol Kathe
    • Chad Daniels

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191107
    Case Study: Adaptive Load Shedding in Critical Industrial Facilities

    This paper describes the design, implementation, and operational results of an in-service load-shedding scheme for a large chemical industrial complex in Mexico. The proposed load-shedding scheme uses high-speed IEC 61850 GOOSE messages and synchrophasors, which provide apparatus monitoring and control, remote load shedding, and monitoring of power measurements for onsite generators and the interconnection with the electric utility system.

    Авторы

    • Edson Hernandez
    • Bob Hughes
    • José de Jesús Durón-Mendoza, Grupo Zener S.C.

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191107
    Preventing Line Faults With Continuous Monitoring Based on Current Traveling Waves

    This paper presents line-monitoring logic for continuous monitoring of high-voltage power lines by using traveling waves for the purpose of preventive maintenance through identifying and locating fault precursors to reduce the count of line faults and unscheduled outages.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Dennis Holmbo

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191107
    CT Sizing for Generator and Transformer Protective Relays

    In this paper, we consider some of the similarities and differences between IEEE and IEC guidance on CT selection. We use CT models verified using high-current tests on a physical CT. Then using these models, we determine CT sizing guidelines and relay settings for a generator and transformer differential relay.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Douglas Taylor, Avista Utilities

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191105
    Comparing the Cost, Complexity, and Performance of Several In-Service Process Bus Merging Unit Solutions Based on IEC 61850

    In this paper, we make a comparative analysis of the performance, cost, complexity, resiliency, and security of several in-service digital secondary system process bus solutions for devices with complete station bus capabilities based on the IEC 61850 communications standard.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Paulo Lima
    • Geraldo Rocha
    • Augusto Rufino
    • William Fernandes

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191105
    Cybersecurity Based on IEC 62351 and IEC 62443 for IEC 61850 Systems

    In this paper, established industrial control system (ICS) methods and standards are used to design defense-in-depth cybersecurity methods for digital communications within an energy control system (ECS) communications network.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Dennis Gammel
    • William Fernandes

    Представлено на

    2020
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20191105
    Practical Experience With High-Impedance Fault Detection in Distribution Systems

    This paper documents how PPL Electric Utilities improved high-impedance fault (HIF) detection on their distribution system by adding an HIF detection algorithm and updating metering technology while still using their existing protective relaying. The paper documents live downed conductor detection testing and the associated findings along with lessons learned from the initial pilot and subsequent enhancements to the system, including adding HIF tripping logic.

    Авторы

    • Mychal Kistler, PPL Electric Utilities
    • Frank Heleniak
    • Tanvi Varshney

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20191021
    A Case Study: Pilot Protection Misoperations Due to Transmission Line Switching

    Several transmission protection misoperations have occurred because of the operation of pilot protection schemes during transmission line switching. In this paper, we discuss many solutions implemented by various utilities and compare the solutions against real-world events.

    Авторы

    • Cobey Bean, Western Farmers Electric Cooperative
    • Fred Mathew
    • Siddharth Rajan
    • Amit Somani

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Код даты: 20191017
    Resetting Protection System Complexity

    Power systems are technological marvels. However, as protection has become faster, automation more prevalent, and communications wide-spread, protection systems have become more complex. A. R. van C. Warrington wrote, "In spite of good intentions ... there is a tendency to extend the operation of relay schemes by adding additional features until complexity results and then it becomes necessary to re-design." Is there an opportunity to reset the complexity curve and still achieve high-speed, sensitive, selective, and simple protection systems that provide automation, system visibility, and cybersecurity? We believe the answer is YES!

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • David E. Whitehead

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20191014
    Locating Faults Before the Breaker Opens – Adaptive Autoreclosing Based on the Location of the Fault

    This paper reviews the merits of controlling autoreclosing based on the location of the fault. Special attention is given to hybrid lines comprising underground cable sections and overhead line sections. The paper explains how the traveling-wave technology allows precise fault locating on these lines and how to use the fault location for autoreclosing for faults on overhead sections and blocking autoreclosing for faults on cable sections.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Titiksha Joshi

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PAC World Conference
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20191009
    Understanding Ground Fault Detection Sensitivity and Ways to Mitigate Safety Hazards in Power Distribution Systems

    This paper revisits different grounding practices in distribution power systems. It discusses how system grounding and load connection impact the sensitivity of detecting higher-impedance ground faults. The paper discusses possible ways of improving the ground fault detection sensitivity for different systems. The paper illustrates that no single economical technology or practice available today can guarantee 100 percent reliable high-impedance ground fault detection. To provide a perspective with respect to ground faults versus fire ignitions, the paper reviews several staged downed conductor tests and summarizes key research findings in released energy of arcing faults and fire ignition.

    Авторы

    • Scott Hayes, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • Daqing Hou
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190923
    CT Saturation on Transformer Energization: Ensuring Your Black-Start Generator Stays Online

    This paper shows why correct CT selection is important for the reliable operation of generator differential protection and, for instances where the CTs cannot be matched properly, provides insight into different mitigation strategies. The paper examines a case from a user who encountered a generator relay misoperation during black-start conditions and discusses how the problem was solved using the strategies presented in the paper.

    Авторы

    • Austin Wade
    • Jordan Bell
    • Marcos Donolo

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190908
    Application of Ultra-High-Speed Protection and Traveling-Wave Fault Locating on a Hybrid Line

    This paper discusses a pilot installation experience of using ultra-high-speed (UHS) protection and traveling-wave fault locating on a hybrid line at a power utility in India. The paper presents details about the hybrid line pilot installation, commissioning of the UHS relays for protection and fault locating, and overall performance of the UHS relays for faults recorded on the pilot system.

    Авторы

    • Sthitaprajnyan Sharma
    • Amol Kathe
    • Titiksha Joshi
    • Thamizhcholai Kanagasabai

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190906
    Extremely Fast Tripping for an Arc-Flash Event: A Field Case Analysis

    This paper describes an arc-flash event that occurred at the first 10 MW grid-tied energy storage plant in India. It explains how an installed arc-flash protection application used light sensors in conjunction with ultra-high-speed overcurrent elements to trip quickly. The paper also explains how important the inter-tripping between different voltage levels can be for reducing incident energy and preventing further damage from an arc flash.

    Авторы

    • Manibhushan Prasad, Tata Power Delhi Distribution Limited
    • Mohanraj Perumalsamy
    • Shripad Kapse
    • Chethan Kumar Barikar
    • Deepak Srivastava
    • Ricardo Abboud

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190905
    Detecting and Locating Broken Conductor Faults on High-Voltage Lines to Prevent Autoreclosing Onto Permanent Faults

    This paper describes a new algorithm that uses only single-ended measurements to reliably detect broken conductors and estimate their location by using the charging current of the line. We can use broken-conductor detection to trip the breakers before the conductor touches the ground and creates a shunt fault and block any attempt to reclose the line onto this permanent fault. The proposed algorithm is validated by three field events from 57.1 kV and 220 kV lines and results from EMTP simulations.

    Авторы

    • Kanchanrao Dase
    • Sajal Harmukh
    • Arunabha Chatterjee

    Представлено на

    2019
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190904
    PNM Approach to Protecting Overcompensated High-Voltage Lines

    This paper discusses a Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) project to intersect an existing 345 kV series-compensated line. It also discusses the challenges encountered when protecting overcompensated extra-high-voltage lines and provides a performance comparison of phasor-based and ultra-high-speed protective relays using real-time digital simulation.

    Авторы

    • Henry Moradi, Public Service Company of New Mexico
    • Kamal Garg
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Eric Chua
    • Jordan Bell

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190827
    Considerations When Using Charging Current Compensation in Line Current Differential Applications

    Every high-voltage transmission line draws capacitive charging current that a line current differential (87L) relay must compensate for; otherwise, the protection scheme might misoperate. This paper reviews charging current theory, calculations, and compensation methods. It also provides guidelines to help protection engineers determine when charging current compensation is required for an 87L scheme.

    Авторы

    • Jordan Bell
    • Ariana Hargrave
    • Greg Smelich
    • Brian Smyth

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190821
    SDG&E Relay Standards – Updating Tertiary Bus and Reactor Protection

    This paper discusses protection scheme design methodology and challenges for shunt reactor applications. The paper discusses the possible improvements to the protection scheme design in consideration of tertiary dry-type reactors using modern relays. In addition, the paper also discusses the overall protection design as applied to the San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) system for reactor bank and related tertiary bus applications.

    Авторы

    • Bill Cook, retired from San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Chris Bolton, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Kamal Garg

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190724
    Sizing Chokes for Mission-Critical Islanded Power Systems

    This paper shares a set of equations for sizing chokes for isolated-parallel power systems. The theory behind each equation is shared, and chokes are sized for an example power system.

    Авторы

    • Scott Manson
    • Mike Mosman, Morrison Hershfield Corporation

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20190719
    IEC 61850 Network Cybersecurity: Mitigating GOOSE Message Vulnerabilities

    This paper explores security weaknesses in the GOOSE protocol and how to mitigate them using managed switches and software-defined networking (SDN).

    Авторы

    • Mauricio Gadelha da Silveira
    • Paulo Henrique Franco

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20190712
    Complete IEC 61850 Protection and Control System Cybersecurity Is So Much More Than Device Features Based on IEC 62351 and IEC 62443

    In this paper, the Purdue Model is used to design defense-in-depth cybersecurity methods to implement human-to-machine and machine-to-machine digital communications within an energy control system (ECS) communications network. The ECS communications architecture is divided into multiple appropriate levels with unique requirements and features from the process up through the station and finally to the control center.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Dennis Gammel
    • William Fernandes

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PAC World Conference
    Код даты: 20190703
    Improving Cybersecurity Through a Centralized Password Management System

    This paper discusses how a centralized user and password management system can enhance the security of secondary system infrastructure. The paper also discusses how this system can enhance substation infrastructure without interrupting operations.

    Авторы

    • Ammad Ali
    • Husam Ahmed
    Код даты: 20190524
    Improving Operation and Maintenance of Substation Equipment Using Operational Data From Protective Relays

    Protective relays provide extensive information that can be retrieved and linked with operational and maintenance topologies, either manually or automatically. This paper details the data that can be retrieved from modern digital protective relays only and how these data can be used to develop an equipment maintenance program that saves time and money.

    Подготовил

    • Mohamed Nabil Ali

    Представлено на

    2019
    • GCC Power
    Код даты: 20190524
    Software-Defined Networking Reinforces Security and Performance in Operational Technology Communications Networks

    This paper discusses the basics of control and data planes in a network system. It also compares software-defined networking (SDN) performance with that of traditional Ethernet switches and discusses how SDN optimizes the network in an automation system.

    Авторы

    • Anwar Habeeb Moinudeen
    • Ammad Ali

    Представлено на

    2019
    • GCC Power
    Код даты: 20190524
    Implementing an Intelligent Steam and Electrical Load-Shedding System for a Large Paper Mill: Design and Validation Using Dynamic Simulations

    This paper discusses how the implementation of a load-shedding system in a paper mill increased the reliability of the mill while minimizing operating costs and capital losses during unplanned events. The paper further discusses, in detail, the dynamic modeling of a double-extraction steam turbine and the validation of the load-shedding system in a closed-loop environment.

    Авторы

    • Siddharth Rajan
    • Payal Gupta
    • Srikar Malladi
    • Prasanna Muralimanohar
    • Guenther Strunk, International Paper Company

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PPIC
    Код даты: 20190422
    Beyond the Nameplate – Selecting Transformer Compensation Settings for Secure Differential Protection

    This paper presents simple rules for the correct selection of transformer differential relay compensation settings and their application to real-world installations.

    Авторы

    • Barker Edwards, PowerServices, Inc.
    • David G. Williams, FirstEnergy Corporation
    • Ariana Hargrave
    • Matthew Watkins
    • Vinod K. Yedidi

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    2017
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190418
    Making My Paper Mill Safer: An Arc-Flash Energy Reduction Story

    This paper details an arc-flash mitigation scheme installed on 50 unit substations at a Midwestern pulp and paper mill, which reduced the average arc-flash rating by 90 percent.

    Авторы

    • Haley Newton
    • Jordan McCrory, formerly with Verso Corporation

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PPIC
    Код даты: 20190415
    Cost and Performance Comparison of Numerous In-Service Process Bus Merging Unit Solutions Based on IEC 61850

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the various communications network topologies and process instrumentation and control devices. The analysis includes the reliability of various systems in terms of unavailability. The cost and complexity of each solution is also evaluated along with the level of expertise required by maintenance teams to detect failures and restore system operation. Performance is evaluated based on the speed of detection and reaction to a power system fault.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Paulo Lima
    • Geraldo Rocha
    • Augusto Rufino
    • William Fernandes

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PAC World Conference
    Код даты: 20190412
    Distance Protection: Why Have We Started With a Circle, Does It Matter, and What Else Is Out There?

    This paper explains the principles and illustrates the operation of distance protection including traditional mho and quadrilateral elements, new time-domain incremental quantity distance elements, and future distance elements based on voltage and current traveling waves.

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190411
    Case Study: Turbine Load-Sharing and Load-Shedding System for an Australian LNG Facility

    This paper presents a turbine load-sharing and load-shedding system for an islanded liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Australia. The system includes three independent and redundant load-shedding schemes: process-based contingency load shedding with predefined load group and load pairs, high-speed underfrequency-based load shedding, and progressive overload shedding with system frequency supervision.

    Авторы

    • Abdel Rahman Khatib
    • Bowen Dai
    • Roberto Costa
    • Anshuman Mallya, Chevron

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20190404
    Improving Line Crew Dispatch Accuracy When Using Traveling-Wave Fault Locators

    Traveling-wave fault locators are very accurate. To retain the inherently high per-unit fault location accuracy, utilities need a method to convert the per-unit fault location to the tower identifier in order to use their mapping data when dispatching line crews. This paper presents several methods for improving accuracy of tower position information for the purpose of dispatching line crews. These methods use past faults for which the location has been confirmed with high confidence, line taps, and Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) tests for identifying splice locations in the Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) cables.

    Подготовил

    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190404
    Techniques for Commissioning Arc-Flash Mitigation Systems

    This paper explains best-known practices and tools available for commissioning arc-flash mitigation systems. Topics discussed include how to select and configure test equipment, interpret device self-test diagnostics, and validate system performance with event reports and time-synchronized devices.

    Авторы

    • Matthew Cato
    • Scott Manson
    • Matthew Watkins
    • Andy Gill, Fluor Ltd.

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20190404
    Compensator Ground Fault Coverage Through a Delta-Wye Transformer – A Case Study

    This paper discusses how ground faults affect distance relays that are set to reach through delta-wye transformers.

    Авторы

    • Dustin Hohenbery, Caterpillar
    • Ryan McDaniel
    • Harish Chaluvadi
    • Michael J. Thompson

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190402
    Impacts of Single Event Upsets on Protective Relays

    This paper examines single event upsets (SEUs), their causes, mitigation methods, and most importantly, how engineers can make the protection system more resilient if or when SEUs occur. The paper quantifies how often SEUs are likely to occur and suggests and compares some practical application and control design solutions.

    Авторы

    • Karl Zimmerman
    • Derrick Haas

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Код даты: 20190313
    The Useful Life of Microprocessor-Based Relays: A Data-Driven Approach

    Confidence in microprocessor-based protective relays has steadily increased over the four decades since their invention. As the service life of these devices exceeds multiple decades, questions regarding when and how to strategically replace these relays are increasing. This paper defines terms associated with the reliability of protective relays, provides field-observed life cycle reliability data, and suggests replacement strategies.

    Авторы

    • Derrick Haas
    • Matt Leoni
    • Karl Zimmerman
    • Adrian Genz
    • Travis Mooney

    Представлено на

    2019
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    2021
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Код даты: 20190313
    Fault Currents, Circuit Breakers, and a New Method for X/R Calculations in Parallel Circuits

    This paper examines the problem of determining a system’s X/R ratio when there are parallel circuits at the fault and no single X/R precisely describes the current. It develops a rigorous method to construct and algebraically solve the differential equation of the fault current, thus providing the accurate transient component. Examples are provided, and the concept of a variable X/R is proposed to consider the actual impact of the transient current.

    Подготовил

    • Amir Norouzi

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190308
    Practical Experience With Ultra-High-Speed Line Protective Relays

    This paper documents the experience of applying an ultra-high-speed relay that uses incremental quantities and traveling-wave-based protection elements on a 115 kV line. The paper provides extensive event analysis to evaluate the performance, security, sensitivity, and dependability of the relay and presents the lessons learned from the application.

    Авторы

    • Nicholas Metzger, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company
    • Benjamin Carstens, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company
    • Frank Heleniak

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    Код даты: 20190308
    Testing and Commissioning Ultra-High-Speed Line Protection on a 345 kV Transmission Line

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) selected ultra-high-speed (UHS) line protective relays for their 345 kV lines, in addition to their phasor-based protective relays. In this paper, we discuss the procedures followed during the commissioning, bench, and end-to-end testing of the PNM UHS line protection.

    Авторы

    • Henry Moradi, Public Service Company of New Mexico
    • Daniel Marquis, Public Service Company of New Mexico
    • Kamal Garg
    • Greg Smelich
    • Yajian Tong

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190308
    Capability Curve-Based Generator Protection Minimizes Generator Stress and Maintains Power System Stability

    This paper presents implementation details of a generator protection scheme with characteristics tailored to the generator capability curve of the machine. The proposed scheme provides improved generator protection and simplifies coordination of scheme elements with the generator underexcitation limiter.

    Авторы

    • Matchyaraju Alla
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • RVP-AI
    Код даты: 20190307
    Protection and Testing Considerations for IEC 61850 Sampled Values-Based Distance and Line Current Differential Schemes

    When designing Sampled Values-based (SV-based) substations, engineers must prove that SV-based schemes are as secure and reliable as traditional protection systems. This paper discusses the impact of communications conditions on line protection, provides benchmark test results, and highlights considerations that protection engineers should factor in when implementing SV-based line protection schemes.

    Авторы

    • Steven Chase
    • Erin Jessup
    • Mauricio Silveira
    • Jiawei Dong
    • Qiaoyin Yang

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190307
    Real-World Troubleshooting With Microprocessor-Based Recloser Controls

    This paper provides accounts of undesired operations that have occurred in real recloser installations, reveals the root cause, and offers techniques to mitigate against future failures. The paper categorizes recloser installation misoperations as single-pole tripping, reclosing, and apparent miscoordination issues. The paper recommends commissioning and maintenance practices as well as tips for troubleshooting and repairing recloser systems.

    Авторы

    • Marcel Taberer
    • Jeremy Blair

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20190307
    Sequence Component Applications in Protective Relays – Advantages, Limitations, and Solutions

    This paper is a tutorial on protection applications of sequence components, focusing on advantages, limitations, and application considerations.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190306
    Mystery Solved: Five Surprises Discovered With Megahertz Sampling and Traveling-Wave Data Analysis

    High-frequency traveling-wave technology is entering the power system application mainstream, bringing with it an unprecedented level of highly accurate signal detail. This paper documents and explains some of the more surprising, lesser-known, and strange-looking waveforms captured while monitoring high-voltage transmission lines with megahertz sampling.

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Jean León Eternod
    • Yanfeng Gong, American Electric Power

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • RVP-AI
    Код даты: 20190304
    Understanding Design, Installation, and Testing Methods That Promote Substation IED Resiliency for High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Events

    This paper demonstrates intelligent electronic device (IED) resiliency to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events through analysis and test results. It presents substation grounding and wiring practices that are HEMP resilient and also highlights available HEMP standards as they relate to IEDs and substation control houses. This information will help utilities prevent unnecessary mitigation efforts and address the concerns regarding the effects of HEMP on substations and substation IEDs.

    Авторы

    • Tim Minteer
    • Travis Mooney
    • Sharla Artz
    • David E. Whitehead

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20190301
    Expanding Protection and Control Communications Networks With Wireless Radio Links

    This paper examines the application of GOOSE over Ethernet radios and the associated challenges. The paper shares results from a real-world implementation, including results from GOOSE latency tests for protection and control applications.

    Авторы

    • Tom Bartman
    • Ben Rowland
    • Laura Rogers, Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc.

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    • PAC World Americas
    2018
    • Clemson PSC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2019
    • REPC
    Код даты: 20190215
    Apply a Wireless Line Sensor System to Enhance Distribution Protection Schemes

    This paper describes the components of a wireless protection sensor system, its integration with protection devices, and how the fault information can be transmitted from the sensors to such devices at protection speeds. Additionally, this paper discusses how protection devices use this low-latency fault information to securely speed up the operation speed of and improve the selectivity of distribution protection schemes.

    Авторы

    • Jakob Fowler
    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Kei Hao
    • David Keckalo

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • IEEE ROC&C
    2019
    • REPC
    Код даты: 20190201
    A Practical Guide to Designing and Deploying OT SDN Networks

    This paper explores how operational technology software-defined networking (OT SDN) can deliver benefits for OT networks in determinism, traffic control, and failure recovery by using an application-focused, proactive, and predictable design based on a deny-by-default cybersecurity architecture. This paper then describes an approach to designing and deploying an OT SDN network to incorporate these benefits by focusing on discussing design processes (such as requirement gathering, topology design, and path planning) and engineering considerations (such as automation, validation, and testing).

    Подготовил

    • Robert Meine

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20190131
    All About Eve: Comparing DNP3 Secure Authentication With Standard Security Technologies for SCADA Communications

    This paper discusses cryptographic system implementations in operational technology (OT) environments and how protocols such as IPsec, TLS, and DNP3-SA can be mapped onto common distribution communications architectures. It also provides recommendations for OT system owners and manufacturers who wish to implement cryptographic solutions.

    Авторы

    • Clifford Rosborough, Exelon
    • Colin Gordon
    • Brian Waldron

    Представлено на

    2019
    • MIPSYCON
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20190131
    Solving the Inherent Problem of Transporting Serial Teleprotection Circuits Over MPLS

    As utilities implement packet-based Ethernet transport technology, communications engineers must design pilot channels that still meet strict protection application requirements. This paper describes a deterministic transport solution for critical traffic over packet-based wide-area networks (WANs) that is compatible with both Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Carrier Ethernet systems. Live implementation performance data are included.

    Авторы

    • P. Robertson
    • K. Fodero
    • C. Gray

    Представлено на

    2019
    • SEAPAC
    Код даты: 20190130
    Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing for Protection Applications

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation that uses wavelength division multiplexing in high-performance power system protection applications. The investigation was performed using the latest generation of carrier-grade optical transport network (OTN) equipment. The paper documents the performance, opportunities, and pitfalls associated with this application and outlines practical strategies for the seamless integration of protection systems with the latest generation of OTN technologies.

    Авторы

    • V. Skendzic
    • N. Fischer
    • J. Sykes, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • D. Day, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • K. Fennelly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    2019
    • SEAPAC
    Код даты: 20190130
    Lessons Learned in Implementing IEC 61850 Communications Solutions

    This paper discusses many of the common challenges of integrating intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) in an IEC 61850 environment, how to diagnose problems using packet analysis tools and IEC 61850 MMS browsers, and what settings in the IED or Configured IED Description (CID) file need to be adjusted to resolve these challenges.

    Авторы

    • Kevin Mahoney, Casco Systems
    • Kevin Coyne, Casco Systems
    • Brian Waldron

    Представлено на

    2019
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20190125
    Application Considerations for Protecting Transformers With Dual Breaker Terminals

    This paper discusses the protection of transformers with dual breaker terminals. It covers the compromises that often must be made between security and sensitivity of protection for this common configuration. The paper describes methods for designing transformer protection schemes and presents guidelines for selecting CT ratios and setting restrained and unrestrained differential elements for these applications.

    Авторы

    • Shahab Uddin, American Electric Power
    • Abu Bapary, American Electric Power
    • Michael Thompson
    • Ryan McDaniel
    • Kunal Salunkhe

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20181207
    Open-Phase Detection for Station Auxiliary Transformers

    This paper discusses some of the potential causes of open-phase conditions, their impacts on power system operation, the challenges in detecting them, and some novel methods developed to detect them. It discusses the implementation of these methods in microprocessor-based protective relays at several nuclear power generating stations. The paper also presents field results of a successful open-phase detection.

    Авторы

    • Dwayne Cox, Exelon Generation Company, LLC
    • Ahmed Abd-Elkader
    • Harish Chaluvadi

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20181016
    Emerging Communications and Sensor Technologies That Advance Distribution Automation

    In distribution systems, power utilities are integrating intelligent sensors and advanced communications that go beyond substations and require minimal human interaction. This paper describes many of the technologies and sensor systems that utilities can employ to unlock new distribution applications and enable efficient energy delivery.

    Авторы

    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Kei Hao
    • Jakob Fowler

    Представлено на

    2018
    • MIPSYCON
    2019
    • PEAC
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Код даты: 20181012
    Evaluating Overhead Line Reclosing Sequences Based on Transformer Through-Fault Exposure

    This paper demonstrates using the transformer through-fault capability curves of IEEE C57.109 to evaluate the through-fault damage of various reclosing sequences on an example distribution transformer. The method described in this paper provides distribution owners and operators with a tool to consider the reliability benefits of reclosing versus the loss of life of power transformers.

    Авторы

    • Ed Atienza
    • Chris Kelley

    Представлено на

    2019
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    2020
    • International Conference of Doble Clients
    Код даты: 20181002
    Phase-Shifting Transformer Control and Protection Settings Verification

    This paper discusses the protection and controls for two parallel 400 MVA (+31.3° to –80.1°) phase-shifting transformers at a utility's 230 kV interconnection substation.

    Авторы

    • Bill Cook, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Kamal Garg
    • Milind Malichkar

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180906
    Computationally Efficient Methods for Improved Double-Ended Transmission Line Fault Locating

    This paper describes two categories of impedance-based double-ended fault-locating methods used in transmission systems. The first category includes methods that use local measurements and remote currents. The second category includes methods that use both local and remote currents and voltages. This paper analyzes the accuracy and limitations of known time-synchronized double-ended fault-locating methods and proposes two new methods.

    Авторы

    • Kanchanrao Dase
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180831
    Innovative Approach to Meet NYC System Reliability and Resilience Needs

    This paper discusses the concept of the "resiliency transformer" and its electrical and physical characteristics. It also discusses aspects related to the design of mobile relay panels, the demonstration and staging of the units, digital secondary protection systems, digital simulations, and commissioning.

    Авторы

    • Ed Wah Chen, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Anastasia O’Malley, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Nadia Ali, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Leslie Philp, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Diego Pichardo, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Fabricio Mantilla, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
    • Rogerio Scharlach
    • Satish Samineni

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180831
    Low-Cost Fast Bus Tripping Scheme Using High-Speed Wireless Protection Sensors

    This paper describes the characteristics, dependability, and security of a high-speed wireless protection sensor system and its capability for a wireless fast bus tripping scheme. It details how Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative used this technology in a substation to reduce costs by avoiding equipment replacement and field wiring changes while improving worker safety.

    Авторы

    • Eric McCollum, Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative
    • Kei Hao
    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Jeremy Blair
    • David Keckalo

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20180831
    Field Experience With an Ultra-High-Speed Line Relay and Traveling-Wave Fault Locator

    This paper shares an Indian utility’s field experience with ultra-high-speed protection and traveling-wave fault locating. It discusses a pilot installation of line protective relays with these capabilities and presents the performance of both protection and fault locating functions for internal faults on the pilot line.

    Авторы

    • Sthitaprajnyan Sharma
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180830
    Microgrid Control System Protects University Campus From Grid Blackouts

    This paper presents a case study of a microgrid control system developed, validated, tested, and commissioned for the University of California San Diego. The system provides the ability to detect and decouple during utility disturbances, operate in islanded conditions, and provide resynchronization to the grid.

    Авторы

    • John Dilliot, University of California San Diego
    • Ashish Upreti
    • Bharath Nayak
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180830
    Addressing Analog Leased Line Obsolescence by Preserving Protection Channel Performance Over Ethernet

    Telecommunications carriers are ending support for analog leased line services and migrating users to Ethernet-based circuits. This paper presents a solution to the migration challenge based on a technology called virtual synchronous network (VSN) and describes how the utility Consumers Energy validated this solution during trials that used leased Ethernet circuits.

    Авторы

    • Jonathan Geurink, Consumers Energy
    • Kenneth Fodero
    • Paul Robertson

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • MIPSYCON
    • PEAC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Код даты: 20180828
    GSE Experience With a Country-Wide Distributed Remedial Action Scheme for Power System Protection and Control

    Georgian State Electrosystem implemented a distributed remedial action scheme (RAS) to maintain power system stability in the Republic of Georgia. This RAS was based on customized operating principles devised specifically for Georgia’s power system. This paper describes the genesis of the project, the initial requirements, the reason a distributed architecture was selected, performance indicators, and operation examples.

    Авторы

    • Alexander Didbaridze, Georgian State Electrosystem
    • Vladimer Korganashvili, Georgian State Electrosystem
    • Fernando Calero
    • Pedro Loza
    • Alejandro Carbajal

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    2019
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20180827
    Traveling-Wave Fault Locating for Multiterminal and Hybrid Transmission Lines

    This paper presents how two-terminal traveling-wave fault-locating (TWFL) methods can be applied to multiterminal and hybrid lines. Laboratory test results and field events from Bonneville Power Administration are discussed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed fault-locating method.

    Авторы

    • Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
    • Yajian Tong
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Представлено на

    2018
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180824
    World-Class Engineering: Designing for Quality, Reliability, Maintenance, and Supply Chain Management Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    This paper shows how to apply multiple-criteria decision analysis techniques, such as the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to integrate world-class manufacturing principles into the circuit design process while alleviating the increased complexity of design decisions. Systematic use of AHP in circuit design increases the quality and value of designs while reducing the cost of development.

    Подготовил

    • T. C. Mallett
    Код даты: 20180815
    Testing Traveling-Wave Line Protection and Fault Locators

    This paper presents practical solutions for testing traveling wave-based (TW-based) relays and fault locators, including a TW relay test set and relay event playback functionality. Both approaches are capable of performing end-to-end testing when an absolute time reference is used.

    Авторы

    • A. Guzmán
    • G. Smelich
    • Z. Sheffield
    • D. Taylor

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20180813
    Time-Domain Elements Optimize the Security and Performance of Transformer Protection

    Magnetizing inrush creates a spurious operating current in 87T protection. Early 87T relays used harmonics for security during inrush. Today, we can design algorithms that distinguish directly between inrush and fault currents. By using the new algorithms, we improve the sensitivity and speed of 87T protection and maintain security for transformers with cores built from improved steels.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Douglas Taylor

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180813
    Generator Third-Harmonic Protection Explained

    This paper compares the performance of different third-harmonic schemes and shows how these schemes can be applied to provide secure and sensitive stator winding coverage. It also provides additional guidance regarding learning algorithms and coordination with injection schemes.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer
    • Jason Young

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180726
    Microgrid Systems: Design, Control Functions, Modeling, and Field Experience

    This paper describes the authors’ experience in designing, installing, and testing microgrid control systems.

    Авторы

    • S. Manson
    • K. G. Ravikumar
    • S. K. Raghupathula

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    2018
    • Grid of the Future
    Код даты: 20180726
    How SDN Can Improve Cybersecurity in OT Networks

    This paper discusses the differences between implementing cybersecurity measures in information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) networks. It introduces software-defined networking (SDN) technology and describes how SDN can be used to build a robust and secure OT network.

    Подготовил

    • Colin Gray

    Представлено на

    2018
    • CEPSI
    2019
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Код даты: 20180720
    CCVT Failures and Their Effects on Distance Relays

    This paper reviews three unique CCVT failure events and discusses relay performance during these failures.

    Авторы

    • Sophie Gray, CenterPoint Energy
    • Derrick Haas
    • Ryan McDaniel

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180718
    Modern Power System Automation for Transmission Substations

    This paper discusses an automation system consisting of intelligent electronic devices programmed to exchange information using various protocols to control, protect, and monitor the entire substation.

    Авторы

    • G. M. Asim Akhtar
    • Muhammad Sheraz
    • Ali Safwan
    • M. Akhil Fazil
    • Firas El Yassine

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Код даты: 20180626
    Power Management and Control System – Insights Into Design and Testing

    Keeping in mind the future need of an intelligent power management and control system (PMCS) for smart grid applications, this paper discusses proven design concepts and reliable hardware-in-the-loop testing via a real-time digital simulator. The paper presents various PMCS building blocks, including generation control systems, voltage control systems, an islanding control system, tie-line control, high-speed generation shedding and runback, high-speed load shedding based on contingency and underfrequency, and autosynchronization systems.

    Авторы

    • Maaz Kazmi
    • G.M. Asim Akhtar

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Код даты: 20180626
    Is Your Clock Ticking All the Time? Characterizing Substation-Hardened Clocks for Automation

    This paper describes common failure modes for substation clocks and their recovery mechanisms. It also describes test setups with pass/fail criteria to characterize substation-hardened clocks under conditions of electrical and environmental stress.

    Авторы

    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Larry Thoma
    • Ray Rice
    • Dan Rippon

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PEAC
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Код даты: 20180625
    Testing Superimposed-Component and Traveling-Wave Line Protection

    This paper presents practical solutions for commissioning testing, including end-to-end testing, of ultra-high-speed relays that use traveling waves and incremental quantities. The paper reviews the relay operating principles and derives adequate testing requirements. It then introduces, explains, and illustrates a testing method that relies on superposition of traveling waves and low-bandwidth signals. The method uses a separate test set to generate sharp current and voltage pulses to represent traveling waves and superimposes them on the low-bandwidth signals provided by a traditional relay test set. The method uses test software to control and synchronize both test sets.

    Авторы

    • Thomas Hensler, OMICRON electronics GmbH
    • Christopher Pritchard, OMICRON electronics GmbH
    • Normann Fischer
    • Bogdan Kasztenny

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Код даты: 20180618
    Design and Implementation of Generation Control System for an Offshore Platform

    This paper presents a tested generation control system that was designed and implemented to adapt to a generation system with multiple inertias, islands, control modes, and voltage levels that will tolerate system contingencies.

    Авторы

    • Srinath Raghavan
    • Rekha Jagaduri
    • Srikar Malladi
    • Pedro Heliodoro Sobesobo Dacosta, Marathon Oil Company

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20180426
    New Advancements in Power Flow Regulating Tap-Changer Control Systems for Phase-Shifting Transformers

    This paper describes new developments in power flow regulating tap-changer control systems for phase-shifting transformers (PSTs), which are also called phase angle regulating (PAR) transformers. This paper discusses recent advancements in the control technology and highlights a particularly challenging application of two parallel PSTs installed on San Diego Gas & Electric's 230 kV transmission system.

    Авторы

    • Bill Cook, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Michael Thompson
    • Kamal Garg

    Представлено на

    2018
    • International Conference of Doble Clients
    Код даты: 20180426
    Case Study: Deployment of 300 Smart Motor Control Centers

    This paper describes the design of, and the lessons learned from, a deployment of 300 smart motor control centers for a large oil and gas project in Eurasia. Arc-flash and conventional protection schemes were provided. Manufacturing, testing, and design methods are discussed.

    Авторы

    • Praveen Subramanian
    • Scott Manson

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20180419
    Case Study: Radio Application in a Smart Grid System for a Brownfield Onshore Dispersed Oil Field

    This paper discusses the implementation of a smart grid system for a large dispersed oil field using radios as its communications network. The solution includes high-speed load shedding, online monitoring, event reporting, oscillography, and engineering access. This paper also discusses the process used to design and test the radio technology, including the evaluation of its success metrics, network security, radio path study, and optimization.

    Авторы

    • Kei Hao
    • Niraj Shah
    • Nevil Herbert, Chevron

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20180418
    Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Electrical Protection and Control Systems

    This paper describes the design, technology, model development, and overall validation of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for the largest oil and gas project in the world. Lessons learned and results from recent testing are shared.

    Авторы

    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
    • Roy Hamilton, Chevron
    • Anshuman Mallya, Chevron
    • Michael Mendiola, Chevron

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20180418
    Deterministic Communications for Protection Applications Over Packet-Based Wide-Area Networks

    This paper introduces a deterministic packet transport method of achieving guaranteed latency for critical traffic being transported over packet-based wide-area networks. The method is standard-agnostic, and it elegantly addresses the challenge of migrating time-division multiplexing-based protection circuits to Ethernet without impacting the performance of the network.

    Авторы

    • Kenneth Fodero
    • Christopher Huntley
    • Paul Robertson

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    • PAC World Americas
    • IEEE ROC&C
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • RVP-AI
    Код даты: 20180323
    Considerations and Benefits of Using Five Zones for Distance Protection

    This paper discusses application considerations for communications-assisted line protective relays using five distance zones. This discussion includes how modern microprocessor-based relays can benefit the power system when properly applied to pilot protection and backup step-distance schemes.

    Авторы

    • Ricardo Abboud
    • Jordan Bell
    • Brian Smyth

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PAC World Conference
    2019
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180313
    Line Current Differential Relay Response to a Direct Lightning Strike on a Phase Conductor

    This paper describes an event in which lightning struck a phase conductor of a 345 kV transmission line and discharged current into the phase conductor, but the magnitude of the lightning discharge was insufficient to lead to an insulation breakdown. The paper examines and explains the response of two different line current differential protective relays during such an event.

    Авторы

    • Matthew Boecker, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Glenn Hargrave, CPS Energy
    • Swagata Das
    • Normann Fischer
    • Veselin Skendzic

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180308
    Electromagnetic Torque From Event Report Data – A Measure of Machine Performance

    This paper demonstrates how electromagnetic torque responses can be used to measure the impact of events on a motor in a power system. The paper shows examples of calculating electromagnetic torque using oscillographic event report data obtained from digital motor protection.

    Авторы

    • Dale Finney
    • Derrick Haas

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180305
    Back to the Basics – Event Analysis Using Symmetrical Components

    This paper highlights the use of symmetrical components for simplifying the analysis of events with non-classic fault waveforms. It first provides a refresher on symmetrical component theory and then analyzes three real-world events using a symmetrical component-based event analysis approach.

    Подготовил

    • Amanvir Sudan

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180301
    Accurate and Economical Traveling-Wave Fault Locating Without Communications

    This paper describes a single-ended traveling-wave-based fault-locating method that works with currents only and explains how to perform fault locating manually using ultra-high-resolution fault records from any recording device. This paper also presents laboratory test results as well as field cases in which line crews found the actual faults.

    Авторы

    • Armando Guzmán
    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Yajian Tong
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • RVP-AI
    Код даты: 20180221
    Comparison of Third-Harmonic Stator Ground Protection Schemes

    This paper compares the performance of different third-harmonic schemes and shows how these schemes can be applied to provide secure and sensitive stator winding coverage.

    Авторы

    • R. Chowdhury
    • D. Finney
    • N. Fischer

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20180216
    Analyzing Faulted Transmission Lines: Phase Components as an Alternative to Symmetrical Components

    This paper demonstrates how to analyze faulted transmission lines using phase components (Phase A, Phase B, Phase C) as an alternative to symmetrical components (positive-sequence, negative-sequence, and zero-sequence). The paper explores both steady-state and time-domain applications, with emphasis on generating reliable test signals. Advantages of the phase-domain approach are discussed.

    Авторы

    • Steven Chase
    • Sumit Sawai
    • Amol Kathe

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180213
    Redundant Bus Protection Using High-Impedance Differential Relays

    This paper examines various options for obtaining bus protection redundancy. The paper includes an emphasis on examining various methods of applying dual relays in an existing high-impedance bus differential CT circuit.

    Авторы

    • Josh LaBlanc
    • Michael J. Thompson

    Представлено на

    2017
    • MIPSYCON
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2020
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20180213
    Continuous Automated Analysis of Protection Scheme Communications Leads to Improved Reliability and Performance

    This paper investigates how, by using the communications and reporting capabilities of modern intelligent electronic devices, a continuously running monitoring system can quickly identify and report signal transmission timing or delivery degradation in a protection system using high-speed peer-to-peer signals.

    Авторы

    • Brian Waldron
    • Bryan Fazzari

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PEAC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • Grid of the Future
    Код даты: 20180209
    High-Impedance Differential Applications With Mismatched CTs

    This paper discusses high-impedance differential protection with respect to applying the scheme with mismatched-ratio CTs. The paper describes methods for accommodating mismatched CTs and reports on high-current laboratory testing of CTs. The testing was performed to assess the risk caused by overvoltage on the end terminal of a higher-ratio CT that was tapped at a lower ratio and connected to a high-impedance differential relay.

    Авторы

    • Russ Franklin, Alliant Energy
    • Hossein Nabi-Bidhendi, ABB Inc.
    • Michael J. Thompson
    • Héctor J. Altuve

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180209
    Sharing Direct Fiber Channels Between Protection and Enterprise Applications Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation that uses wavelength division multiplexing in high-performance power system protection applications. The investigation was performed using the latest generation of carrier-grade optical transport network (OTN) equipment. The paper documents the performance, opportunities, and pitfalls associated with this application and outlines practical strategies for the seamless integration of protection systems with the latest generation of OTN technologies.

    Авторы

    • Jonathan Sykes, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • Dewey Day, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • Kevin Fennelly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20180209
    Using Protective Relays for Microgrid Controls

    This paper explains how microprocessor-based protective relays are used to provide both control and protection functions for small microgrids. Features described in the paper include automatic islanding, reconnection to the electric power system, dispatch of distributed generation, compliance to IEEE specifications, load shedding, volt/VAR control, and frequency and power control at the point of common coupling.

    Авторы

    • William Edwards
    • Scott Manson

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180209
    A Substation Automation Solution That Uses Virtualization to Reduce Cost While Ensuring Redundancy and Security Compliance

    This paper discusses the design specifications and lessons learned from a project that uses computer virtualization to reduce the computing hardware needs for a modern substation.

    Авторы

    • Sagar Dayabhai, CONCO Energy Solutions
    • John Prestwich

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20180130
    Resilient Communications Using Various Innovative Wireless Network Topologies

    This paper discusses the performance comparison of wireless serial and Ethernet communications and innovative wireless network topologies that maximize overall network performance during realistic field conditions. Techniques for simple and inexpensive dual primary data paths are described.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Amandeep Kalra
    Код даты: 20180130
    Improve Protection Communications Network Reliability Through Software-Defined Process Bus

    In an IEC 61850 digital substation, merging units connected to instrument transformers stream analog measurements as data packets via an Ethernet network. This paper proposes applying software-defined networking (SDN) path programming and fast failover features to achieve Sampled Values (SV) stream redundancy. The paper also discusses using SDN to manage an IEC 61850 network by logically separating station bus and process bus traffic using SDN path programming.

    Авторы

    • Qiaoyin Yang
    • Rhett Smith

    Представлено на

    2018
    • Grid of the Future
    2019
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20180126
    Case Study: State-of-the-Art Microgrid Control System for Avista’s Clean Energy Fund Project

    This paper discusses the preliminary considerations in designing a micro transactive grid that can be used as a platform to share the investment and return of distributed energy resources with a community.

    Авторы

    • John Gibson, Avista Corporation
    • Michael Diedesch, Avista Corporation
    • Niraj Shah
    • Ashok Balasubramanian

    Представлено на

    2018
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20180123
    Using the Multi-Loop Fault Analysis Method for Setting and Evaluating Generator Protection Elements

    In this paper, the multi-loop fault analysis method is used to determine the sensitivity and coverage provided by various generator internal-fault protection elements for interturn, interbranch, phase-to-phase, and series faults.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Dale Finney
    • Normann Fischer

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20180119
    Correlating Protective Relay Reports for System-Wide, Post-Event Analysis

    This paper shares the initial results and benefits that Blue Ridge Energy Cooperative has achieved by bringing intelligent electronic device oscillography from across their system together in one application.

    Авторы

    • Jared Bestebreur
    • John Town
    • Andy Gould
    • Eric McCollum, Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • WPRC
    2018
    • REPC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20171211
    Solutions to Common Distribution Protection Challenges

    This paper presents common challenges in distribution protection and demonstrates solutions using the multiple protection elements and custom logic available in modern distribution feeder relays and recloser controls. Solutions are provided to prevent false trips due to inrush, improve protection response times, mitigate conductor slap issues, and improve the performance of noncommunicating loop schemes.

    Авторы

    • Jeremy Blair
    • Greg Hataway
    • Trevor Mattson

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2017
    • MIPSYCON
    2018
    • REPC
    2019
    • TechAdvantage
    Код даты: 20171211
    Adaptive Phase and Ground Quadrilateral Distance Elements

    In this paper, we discuss an adaptive quadrilateral distance scheme that can detect greater fault resistance than a previous implementation. We also discuss application considerations for quadrilateral distance elements.

    Авторы

    • Fernando Calero
    • Armando Guzman
    • Gabriel Benmouyal

    Представлено на

    2009
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20171120
    News From the Editor – Updates and Enhancements to Process Bus IEC 61850-9-2 and Related Standards

    The need for low-cost technology and the sheer number of individually terminated copper conductors in traditional wiring approaches have long fostered a dream of fully digital secondary systems based on fiber-optic communications technology. This paper provides an overview of recent standards that add to the wealth of knowledge describing this technology, explains various options and the relationship among different standards, and identifies some of the future work required in this space.

    Авторы

    • V. Skendzic
    • D. Dolezilek

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20171109
    Comparison of Standardized Protocols Available to Replace Substation Copper Field Wiring With Digital Communications

    Numerous digital communications protocols are used in substations to exchange process information traditionally received as low-level analog signals via copper wires from sensors and instrument transformers at the process level. In this paper, characteristics and performance are compared for IEC 61850 GOOSE and Sampled Values messaging, IEC 61158 EtherCAT, IEEE C37.118.2-2011 Synchrophasor Protocol, and Mirrored Bits® communications for their use in copper reduction and distributed communications-assisted control strategies.

    Авторы

    • D. J. Dolezilek
    • A. Kalra

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    2019
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20171108
    Evaluating Machine Transients Using Electromagnetic Torque From Relay Events

    This paper discusses how electromagnetic torque can be calculated from oscillographic event report data obtained from digital motor protection. Several example cases are shared.

    Авторы

    • D. Haas
    • D. Finney

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171108
    Accurate Single-End Fault Locating Using Traveling-Wave Reflection Information

    This paper describes a single-ended traveling-wave-based fault-locating method that works with currents only and explains how to perform fault locating manually using ultra-high-resolution fault records from any recording device. This paper also presents laboratory test results as well as a field case in which the line crew found the actual fault.

    Авторы

    • A. Guzmán
    • B. Kasztenny
    • Y. Tong
    • M. V. Mynam

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171107
    Leveraging Digital Relays for Protection of Pumped Storage Hydro

    This paper describes the challenges associated with protecting pumped storage hydro units. It discusses how digital protective relay schemes provide simpler and more effective protection than traditional electromechanical relay schemes.

    Авторы

    • Terry Foxcroft, Snowy Hydro Limited
    • Normann Fischer
    • Dale Finney
    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Marcos Donolo
    • Douglas Taylor

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Australian Protection Symposium
    Код даты: 20171107
    Traveling-Wave and Incremental Quantity Directional Elements Speed Up Directional Comparison Protection Schemes

    This paper presents a new communications-based protection scheme that uses incremental-quantity and traveling wave-based directional elements to make tripping decisions in 4 to 6 milliseconds. It includes a discussion of forward and reverse fault field events that are used to analyze the performance of a permissive overreaching transfer trip scheme.

    Авторы

    • A. Guzmán
    • M. V. Mynam
    • V. Skendzic
    • J. L. Eternod
    • R. M. Morales, Comisión Federal de Electricidad

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    • RVP-AI
    Код даты: 20171107
    Using Software-Defined Network Technology to Precisely and Reliably Transport Process Bus Ethernet Messages

    This paper describes the components of a Sampled Values system and discusses communications network engineering challenges, solutions, and tools available to provide and verify a reliable Ethernet packet transport in the process bus system. Special attention is given to the design of large substations, which need to securely merge the station bus and the process bus into a single, substation-wide network.

    Подготовил

    • D. J. Dolezilek

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171107
    Controlling Autoreclosing on Overhead Lines With Underground Cable Sections Using Traveling-Wave Fault Location Based on Measurements From Line Terminals Only

    This paper explains principles of fault locating based on traveling waves measured only at line terminals for hybrid lines comprising overhead and cable sections. The paper introduces adaptive autoreclosing control logic to allow or cancel reclosing based on the location of the fault. The paper includes examples that explain and illustrate these principles.

    Авторы

    • B. Kasztenny
    • A. Guzmán
    • M. V. Mynam
    • T. Joshi

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171106
    New Inrush Stability Algorithm Improves Transformer Protection

    This paper presents transformer protection logic for security during magnetizing inrush conditions, especially under transformer ultrasaturation resulting in low levels of even harmonics in the differential current. The protection scheme includes inrush unblocking logic to accelerate tripping for internal short circuits. The paper explains key principles, shares implementation details, and illustrates the concepts with simulation results and field cases.

    Авторы

    • M. Thompson
    • B. Kasztenny

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171106
    Pumped Storage Hydro Protection – Application Considerations

    This paper describes the challenges associated with protecting pumped storage hydro units and how digital protective relay schemes provide simpler and more effective protection than traditional electromechanical relay schemes.

    Авторы

    • N. Fischer
    • D. Finney
    • R. Chowdhury
    • D. Taylor
    • M. Donolo
    • T. Foxcroft, Snowy Hydro Limited

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171103
    Using the Multi-Loop Method to Evaluate Generator Protection Elements

    In this paper, we use the multi-loop fault analysis method to determine the sensitivity and coverage provided by various generator internal-fault protection elements for interturn, interbranch, phase-to-phase, and series faults.

    Авторы

    • R. Chowdhury
    • D. Finney
    • N. Fischer

    Представлено на

    2018
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20171102
    Utility Benefits of Using the Time Frame Capacity Factor Reliability Model

    This paper discusses the advantages of the time frame capacity factor model for utilities in determining the reliability of a power system with integrated renewable energy sources.

    Авторы

    • Bamdad Falahati
    • Pedram Gharghabi, Mississippi State University
    • Amin Kargarian, Louisiana State University
    • Salman Kahrobaee, Operation Technology, Inc.

    Представлено на

    2018
    • IEEE PES T&D
    Код даты: 20171026
    An Error-Checking Method for Delta-Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters Employing Mth-Order Sinc Filters

    This paper develops an error-checking method for analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and presents test results for a commercially available ADC which indicate that the error-checking scheme is useful for detecting catastrophic data converter failures.

    Подготовил

    • Travis C. Mallett
    Код даты: 20171020
    Real-Time Automation Control of a Phase-Shifting Transformer Based on Mission Priorities

    This paper presents an active power control system for a phase-shifting transformer based on mission priorities. The functional design, technical details, system architecture, and implementations of power controllers are discussed. A case study presents the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

    Авторы

    • Niannian Cai
    • Abdel Rahman Khatib
    • Albert Saenz, Silicon Valley Power
    • Janos Bottyan, Silicon Valley Power

    Представлено на

    2018
    • IEEE PES T&D
    Код даты: 20171009
    Nontraditional Approach to Generator Measurements and Model Validation

    This paper discusses the installation of a rotor angle measurement system that was commissioned for San Diego Gas & Electric. This installation provides real-time monitoring and recording of generator rotor angle as well as field excitation quantities that can be applied to meet MOD-026 and MOD-027 requirements.

    Авторы

    • Tariq Rahman, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Hassan Ghoudjehbaklou, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Isaac West
    • Kamal Garg

    Представлено на

    2017
    • POWER-GEN International
    Код даты: 20170925
    Directional Elements – How Fast Can They Be?

    This paper presents a communications-based protection scheme that uses incremental-quantity and traveling-wave-based directional elements to make tripping decisions where coupling capacitor voltage transformers (CCVTs) provide voltage signals to these elements. The paper uses field events captured during forward and reverse faults to analyze the performance of the proposed permissive overreaching transfer trip (POTT) scheme, which achieves operating times on the order of 4 to 6 milliseconds.

    Авторы

    • Armando Guzmán
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Jean León Eternod
    • Rafael Martínez Morales, Comisión Federal de Electricidad

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    2019
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20170914
    Case Study – Improving System Performance Using Distribution Network Automation

    This paper describes how Westar Energy implemented a cost-effective distribution automation system that is now providing a very capable and fully automated fault location, isolation, and service restoration and volt/VAR distribution solution.

    Авторы

    • Aaron Smith, Westar Energy
    • Mike Watson, Westar Energy
    • Jeff Hauber, Westar Energy
    • Clayton Stubbs, Westar Energy
    • Bill Flerchinger
    • Dennis Haes
    • Will Allen

    Представлено на

    2015
    • PEAC
    2017
    • Grid of the Future
    Код даты: 20170913
    Field Experience With Detecting an Arcing Ground Fault on a Generator Neutral Point

    This paper analyzes event reports that indicated an arcing ground on the neutral end of a large generator. It investigates the limitations of ground protection techniques as well as techniques to overcome these limitations when detecting an arcing ground fault.

    Авторы

    • Nathan Klingerman, Duke Energy
    • Larry Wright
    • Brett Cockerham

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Clemson PSC
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    2017
    • POWER-GEN International
    Код даты: 20170913
    A Unified Approach to Controlled Switching of Power Equipment

    This paper reviews what can be achieved with a modern controlled switching device in terms of improving power quality, protecting both the power equipment and the breaker, and improving protective relay reliability.

    Авторы

    • Gabriel Benmouyal
    • Normann Fischer
    • Douglas Taylor
    • Mark Talbott-Williams
    • Ritwik Chowdhury

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    2018
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    Код даты: 20170907
    Robust Microgrid Control System for Seamless Transition Between Grid-Tied and Island Operating Modes

    This paper discusses the complex challenge of achieving seamless transition between grid-tied and island operation of critical facilities while highlighting fast, reliable, and adaptive protection and control solutions.

    Авторы

    • Scott Manson
    • Bharath Nayak
    • Will Allen

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20170907
    Lessons Learned From Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Microgrid Control Systems

    This paper describes the modeling benefits, challenges, and lessons learned associated with controller hardware-in-the-loop testing. The microgrid system used in this study has a 3 MW battery, 5 MW photovoltaic array, 4 MW diesel generator set, and 3.5 MW combined heat and power generation system.

    Авторы

    • E. Limpaecher, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory
    • R. Salcedo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory
    • E. Corbett, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory
    • S. Manson
    • B. Nayak
    • W. Allen

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Grid of the Future
    Код даты: 20170810
    Zero-Setting Algorithm for High-Speed Open Line Detection Using Synchrophasors

    This paper proposes a fast, secure, zero-setting adaptive algorithm to detect and declare open line conditions using wide-area synchrophasor measurements.

    Авторы

    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
    • Ashish Upreti
    • Anurag K. Srivastava, Washington State University

    Представлено на

    2018
    • IEEE PES T&D
    Код даты: 20170725
    IEC 61850 Beyond Compliance: A Case Study of Modernizing Automation Systems in Transmission Power Substations in Emirate of Dubai Towards Smart Grid

    In an effort to move towards smart grid, the Dubai Electricity & Water Authority initiated a long-term contract for the supply, installation, testing, and commissioning of 33 substations with modern automation systems for transmission power substations. This paper discusses the system requirements and various engineering decisions that resulted from lessons learned during the system design stage to ensure that the system is ready for future smart grid requirements. Various analysis tools and testing techniques are described that were used to quantify the performance attributes of the IEC 61850-based system design.

    Авторы

    • Sultan Al Obaidli, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
    • Venkataraman Subramaniam, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
    • Hamood Alhuseini, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
    • Ramesh Gupta, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
    • David Dolezilek
    • Amandeep Kalra
    • Prasanth Sankar

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
    Код даты: 20170714
    Intelligent Controller to Extract Maximum Power From Solar Park

    This paper discusses a practical technique for harvesting the maximum power from a large photovoltaic system. The technique tracks the maximum power point from the nonlinear output characteristics of the PV system using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to extract the maximum power from the PV system under different conditions.

    Авторы

    • Muhammad Sheraz
    • G. M. Asim Akhtar
    • M. A. Abido, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Код даты: 20170713
    Case Study of Time-Domain Automation and Communications: Field-Proven Benefits to Automation, Control, Monitoring, and Special Protection Schemes

    This paper explains a novel data acquisition method that supports accurate, synchronized, wide-area power flow summation at fixed millisecond intervals.

    Авторы

    • Javier Martín Herrera, Red Eléctrica de España
    • Matias Sanchez Mingarro, Red Eléctrica de España
    • Santiago López Barba, Red Eléctrica de España
    • David Dolezilek
    • Fernando Calero
    • Amandeep Kalra
    • Brian Waldron

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    Код даты: 20170712
    Time-Domain Technology – Benefits to Protection, Control, and Monitoring of Power Systems

    This paper provides a basic explanation of time-domain protection and traveling-wave fault location principles and discusses the power system benefits gained from ultra-high-speed protection, precise and fast fault location, and megahertz sampling rates. It also discusses real-world problems solved by applying time-domain technology.

    Авторы

    • Ricardo Abboud
    • David Dolezilek
    Код даты: 20170712
    Isochronous Load Sharing Principles for an Islanded System With Steam and Gas Turbine Generators

    This paper discusses the fundamentals of how to perform isochronous load sharing in an islanded power system with various makes and sizes of generators (steam and gas turbines). The paper details the decentralized generation control system and also presents other topics crucial for industrial power systems.

    Авторы

    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
    • Brandon Bosley, Kiewit Engineering & Design Co.
    • Julio Garcia, Kiewit Engineering & Design Co.
    • Ty Clark, Dominion

    Представлено на

    2017
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20170707
    A Simple Method for Determining Fault Location on Distribution Lines

    This paper examines methods available for fault location and describes the method employed at Fayetteville PWC. It shares the results of Fayetteville PWC's pilot project and provides the information to implement their fault location system on the reader's distribution system.

    Авторы

    • Thomas Covington, Fayetteville Public Works Commission
    • Tim Stankiewicz, Fayetteville Public Works Commission
    • Rick Anderson, Fayetteville Public Works Commission
    • Larry Wright
    • Brett Cockerham

    Представлено на

    2017
    • WPRC
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20170504
    A Current Story – When Primary Met Secondary

    This paper describes the analysis and resulting investigation that occurred when a CT secondary wire made contact with a transformer bushing, causing an outage at a 138 kV substation.

    Авторы

    • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
    • Swagata Das
    • Ariana Hargrave

    Представлено на

    2016
    • MIPSYCON
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170503
    Synchronism-Check Application Over a Wide-Area Network

    This paper describes the design and testing of the first stage of a synchronism-check upgrade to the Whakamaru Power Station. The scheme allows simultaneous synchronization of up to four 11 kV generators with up to four 220 kV lines located over one kilometer apart.

    Авторы

    • Russell Hyde, Mercury
    • Brett Hampson

    Представлено на

    2017
    • EEA Conference
    Код даты: 20170503
    Understanding the Dynamic Mho Distance Characteristic

    This paper examines the dynamic mho expansion for positive-sequence memory polarization during a variety of different faults and changing system conditions.

    Подготовил

    • Donald D. Fentie

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • MIPSYCON
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170426
    Understanding the Limitations of Replaying Relay-Created COMTRADE Event Files Through Microprocessor-Based Relays

    This paper highlights critical parts of the COMTRADE standard and limitations to replaying event files into a relay. It also provides readers a deeper understanding of COMTRADE files and how replaying system disturbances can yield different responses in the protection elements when compared with the original event.

    Авторы

    • Brett M. Cockerham
    • John C. Town

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    2018
    • Clemson PSC
    Код даты: 20170331
    Practical Cybersecurity for Protection and Control System Communications Networks

    This paper explains practical design principles to follow for networked protection and control systems. Proven cybersecurity best practices, system architectures, monitoring methods, and defense-in-depth techniques are described.

    Авторы

    • Scott Manson
    • Dwight Anderson

    Представлено на

    2017
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20170328
    Lessons Learned: Benefits of Using Standardized Protocols to Replace Substation Copper Field Wiring With Digital Communications

    This paper introduces the acceptance criteria for digital messages and LAN performance between data producers and data consumers that are necessary in order to exchange signals to support distributed mission-critical applications. It also compares the attributes of five popular protocols to provide information necessary for designers to understand the behavior and performance of each protocol.

    Авторы

    • D. Dolezilek
    • A. Kalra
    Код даты: 20170321
    System Integrity Protection Schemes in the 400 kV Transmission Network of Turkey

    This paper describes two regional system integrity protection schemes implemented in Turkey to avoid regional blackouts and the propagation of disturbances to neighboring countries.

    Авторы

    • Francesco Iliceto, University of Rome
    • Özkan Akansel, TEİAŞ
    • Mevlüt Akdeniz, TEİAŞ
    • Süleyman Erikci, TEİAŞ
    • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
    • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar

    Представлено на

    2017
    • PAC World Conference
    Код даты: 20170321
    Secure and Reliable GPS-Based Time Distribution

    This paper introduces the concept of using terrestrial private communications networks for the distribution of high-accuracy time and provides methods for mitigating specific GPS vulnerabilities.

    Авторы

    • Kenneth Fodero
    • Christopher Huntley
    • Paul Robertson
    Код даты: 20170320
    Taking Full Control of Your Process Bus LAN Using New Ethernet Packet Transport Technologies

    This paper explains the technical issues that have been addressed during the past decade of Sampled Values technology development and explains how these issues are resolved with the use of software-defined networking for process local-area network packet switching and fault recovery. It also introduces the correlation between accessible electricity and economic improvements, and it discusses the importance of low installation costs, low lifecycle costs, and high availability and resistance for added or expanded power systems.

    Подготовил

    • D. Dolezilek
    Код даты: 20170313
    New and Emerging Solutions for Sampled Value Process Bus IEC 61850-9-2 Standard – An Editor’s Perspective

    This paper analyzes the Sampled Value process bus concepts that have recently been updated by various IEC working groups. The authors are engineers with over a decade of participation in developing the IEC communications standards.

    Авторы

    • V. Skendzic
    • D. Dolezilek

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
    Код даты: 20170309
    An Exercise in Trust: Examining the Future of Cryptographic Technology in Electrical Control Systems

    This paper presents actionable information regarding the critical requirements of a fully trusted industrial control system network. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of existing solutions for implementing trust management.

    Подготовил

    • Colin Gray

    Представлено на

    2017
    • SEAPAC
    Код даты: 20170228
    Ethernet-Based Line Differential Protection Over Passive Multiplexers

    This paper describes a three-terminal line differential protection project designed for a rail company as part of a refurbishment project. The paper explains each of the different technologies used for this project, including line differential over Ethernet, coarse wave division multiplexers, and managed switch configuration. It also provides details of the performance of the system in terms of speed and stability.

    Авторы

    • Ron Nathan
    • Chido Chandakabata
    • Ray Barnes, Metro Trains

    Представлено на

    2017
    • SEAPAC
    Код даты: 20170228
    Lessons Learned and Successful Root Cause Analysis of Elusive Ethernet Network Failures in Installed Systems

    This paper summarizes the Ethernet packet performance time definitions in IEC 61850 Edition 1 and the new IEC 61850 Edition 2 time classes, introduces subscribing device features required to confirm proper packet exchange, and illustrates case study examples of in-service local-area network (LAN) failures.

    Авторы

    • D. Dolezilek
    • J. Dearien
    • M. van Rensburg

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
    Код даты: 20170227
    Choose Simplicity for a Better Digital Substation Design

    This paper outlines the benefits of using digital communications between primary substation equipment and the protective relays installed in the control house. The authors discuss two methods used to implement a process bus—a switched network and a point-to-point network—and then introduce a new point-to-point, EtherCAT-based digital substation technology that is robust, simple to use, and secure.

    Авторы

    • Greg Rzepka
    • Scott Wenke
    • Sarah Walling

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170213
    Microgrid Islanding and Grid Restoration With Off-the-Shelf Utility Protection Equipment

    This paper explains how commercial, off-the-shelf protective relays can be used to automatically island microgrids and to then automatically reconnect them to the macrogrid.

    Авторы

    • William C. Edwards Jr.
    • Scott Manson
    • Jakov Vico
    Код даты: 20170213
    Protection Challenges for North America’s First Combined Cable/Overhead Double-Circuit 500 kV Transmission Line With Mutual Coupling

    Southern California Edison is protecting a new 500 kV mutually coupled transmission line incorporating both overhead and underground sections. This paper discusses the protection challenges faced with this type of arrangement and describes using real-time digital simulation to evaluate the performance of the protection system.

    Авторы

    • Denis Bucco, Southern California Edison
    • Curtis Sanden, Southern California Edison
    • Arturo Torres, Southern California Edison
    • Edward Wong, Southern California Edison
    • Jordan Bell
    • Normann Fischer
    • John Thompson

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170213
    Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Considerations for Induction Motor Loads

    This paper describes an event in which a negative-sequence overcurrent (51Q) element operated for a fault on an adjacent feeder, discusses the impact of voltage unbalance on induction motors, and shares lessons learned to assist engineers to securely set 51Q elements.

    Авторы

    • Miles Dupuis, Cleco Power LLC
    • Nick Mahoney
    • Aadityaa Padmanabhan
    • Krithika Bhuvaneshwaran

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170209
    Utility Implements Communications-Assisted Special Protection and Control Schemes for Distribution Substations

    This paper discusses the functionality and merits of the high-speed distribution protection implemented for the City of College Station's multiple distribution substations using communications-assisted special protection and control schemes. These schemes were implemented to improve the reliability, selectivity, and availability of the power system.

    Авторы

    • Michael R. Duff, City of College Station
    • Payal Gupta
    • Dharmendra Prajapati
    • Alex Langseth

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170209
    If You Cannot Test It, You Cannot Use It – IEC 61850 GOOSE System Designed With Testing in Mind

    This paper provides procedures and guidelines for successfully designing and integrating IEC 61850 GOOSE protection schemes while keeping the feasibility of initial commissioning and future expansion and testing in mind.

    Авторы

    • Don Burkart, Consolidated Edison of New York
    • William Edwards
    • Anne Atalay
    • Stephen Snuggs

    Представлено на

    2017
    • DistribuTECH
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170207
    Generator Motoring Protection – Are You Protected?

    This paper discusses motoring events and the resulting active and reactive power flows, examines existing reverse power relays used for generator protection, and presents a new algorithm for dependable motoring detection. It also reviews current transformer and voltage transformer accuracy as defined by ANSI IEEE C57.13 and IEC 61869.

    Авторы

    • Dale Finney
    • Michael Thompson
    • Normann Fischer
    • Amandeep Kalra

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170202
    Advanced Generator Protection and Monitoring Using Transducer Measurements

    This paper introduces new ideas and concepts that complement existing generator protection elements to provide better overall generator protection and monitoring.

    Авторы

    • Terry Foxcroft, Snowy Hydro Limited
    • Normann Fischer
    • Dale Finney
    • Satish Samineni
    • Yu Xia

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20170130
    High-Speed Reclosing, Switching Surges, and Bus Differential Protection Security – A Case Study

    In this paper, we use high-resolution event data to discuss switching surges caused by high-speed reclosing on high-voltage lines and their impact on bus differential relays.

    Авторы

    • Jeff Iler, American Electric Power
    • Ryan McDaniel

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170130
    Integrating Synchrophasors and Oscillography for Wide-Area Power System Analysis

    This paper describes the design of a system that combines event files stored in protective relays and synchrophasor data streamed from phasor measurement units (PMUs) for wide-area system analysis.

    Авторы

    • Dora Nakafuji, Hawaiian Electric Company
    • Laura Rogers, Hawaii Electric Light Company
    • Jared Bestebreur
    • Michael Rourke
    • Greg Zweigle

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • PEAC
    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170130
    Performance Comparison Between Mho Elements and Incremental Quantity-Based Distance Elements

    This paper compares the intrinsic performance of conventional mho elements and incremental quantity-based distance elements, irrespective of the ways they are implemented. Specifically, it explains that incremental distance elements have superior performance, but they have to be supplemented by conventional mho elements because the incremental elements are only available for a short time.

    Авторы

    • Gabriel Benmouyal
    • Normann Fischer
    • Brian Smyth

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170130
    Real-Time Circuit Breaker Health Diagnostics

    This paper details a system developed with American Electric Power for monitoring and automatically diagnosing the health of circuit breakers. It presents an overview of real-time data parameters recorded to provide important health diagnostic information that provides insight into the remaining expected life of the breaker. The system uses this information to reduce operations and maintenance costs by eliminating regularly scheduled manual tests and shifting to as-needed maintenance rather than regularly scheduled maintenance.

    Авторы

    • Jason M. Byerly, American Electric Power
    • Carey Schneider, American Electric Power
    • Robert Schloss
    • Isaac West

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20170130
    Software-Defined Networking Redefines Performance for Ethernet Control Systems

    This paper outlines the three distinct advantages that software-defined networking (SDN) brings to Ethernet-based control systems: dramatically improved packet delivery performance under both normal and fault event conditions, greater cybersecurity without added complexity, and centralized situational awareness with disruptionless change control, enabling seamless scalability.

    Авторы

    • Mark Hadley, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    • David Nicol, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    • Rhett Smith

    Представлено на

    2017
    • PEAC
    • IEEE ROC&C
    Код даты: 20170130
    Ukraine Cyber-Induced Power Outage: Analysis and Practical Mitigation Strategies

    This paper provides an analysis of the Ukraine cyber-induced power outage on December 23, 2015 and provides mitigation methods and recommendations that would have protected the Ukraine control system.

    Авторы

    • David E. Whitehead
    • Kevin Owens
    • Dennis Gammel
    • Jess Smith

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Conference
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20170130
    Case Study: Lessons Learned Using IEC 61850 Network Engineering Guideline Test Procedures to Troubleshoot Faulty Ethernet Network Installations

    This paper addresses the use of IEC 61850 network engineering and testing guidelines for performing network acceptance testing and for troubleshooting in-service Ethernet networks. The paper also explains best practices to configure systems to constantly perform self-tests and monitor and record performance statistics.

    Авторы

    • Marcel van Rensburg
    • David Dolezilek
    • Jason Dearien

    Представлено на

    2017
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20170127
    System for Event Summary Notifications: Preliminary Operational Results at SDG&E

    This paper describes the practical implementation details and operational experience of a new oscillation detection system initially operated at San Diego Gas & Electric. Several examples are provided of successful detection and analysis of events using this system.

    Авторы

    • Tariq Rahman, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Ellery Blood
    • Matt Halladay
    • Jared Bestebreur

    Представлено на

    2017
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20170127
    Adaptive Mitigation of Out-of-Step Transients Based on Equal Area Criterion and Energy Balance

    This paper discusses improvements to out-of-step protection. These improvements provide adaptive protection based on dynamical system energy balance to more effectively detect potential out-of-step conditions and provide more flexible corrective actions. This method also provides additional robustness by compensating for uncertainties in system parameters.

    Подготовил

    • Ellery A. Blood

    Представлено на

    2017
    • IEEE PES ISGT
    Код даты: 20170126
    Design and Development of a Microgrid Control System for Integration of Induction Generation With Storage Capability at Saint Paul Island, Alaska

    This paper presents a centralized microgrid control system for effective operation of wind turbines and diesel engines coupled to a flywheel electrical storage component on Saint Paul Island. The wind turbines have sufficient capacity to support the entire island without using the diesel engines, allowing the formation of an islanded power system completely powered by renewables. The control system was tested using hardware-in-the-loop simulation with a simplified electrical model of the Saint Paul system.

    Авторы

    • Abdel Rahman Khatib
    • Bharath Nayak
    • Bowen Dai
    • Jito Coleman, TDX Power, Inc.
    • Steve Hoskins, TDX Power, Inc.
    • Jan Tierson, TDX Power, Inc.

    Представлено на

    2017
    • IEEE PES ISGT
    Код даты: 20161214
    Direct Cyber-Power Interdependency Study on Microgrid Control

    This paper discusses what happens when a microgrid control system fails and quantitatively evaluates the impact on microgrid reliability.

    Авторы

    • Bamdad Falahati
    • Roberto Costa
    • Amin Kargarian, Louisiana State University
    Код даты: 20161026
    Remedial Action Scheme Based on Synchrophasor Measurements and System Angle Difference for Peru’s 500 kV Grid

    This paper describes the logic design, communications infrastructure, and real-time testing of a remedial action scheme implemented in southern Peru.

    Авторы

    • Yofre Jacome, COES SINAC
    • Luis Figueroa, Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde
    • Eduardo Palma
    • Fernando Calero
    • Pedro Loza
    • Alejandro Carbajal
    • Ashish Upreti

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • PAC World Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20161010
    Practical Setting Considerations for Protective Relays That Use Incremental Quantities and Traveling Waves

    This paper reviews a number of typical settings found in incremental quantity- and traveling-wave-based protection elements and provides setting guidelines and examples for various applications, including series-compensated lines and lines with tapped loads.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Normann Fischer
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Douglas Taylor

    Представлено на

    2016
    • WPRC
    2017
    • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20160919
    Practical Considerations When Protecting Mutually Coupled Lines

    This paper provides insights into how mutual coupling affects ground distance, ground overcurrent, and directional elements in different system configurations; offers practical advice for identifying situations where mutual coupling must be considered; and provides step-by-step guidance for setting ground distance and directional overcurrent elements on transmission lines that are affected by mutual coupling.

    Авторы

    • Craig Holt
    • Michael J. Thompson

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20160909
    Defining and Measuring the Performance of Line Protective Relays

    This paper focuses on defining and measuring the performance of ultra-high-speed line protective relays, including traveling-wave protection elements.

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
    • Armando Guzmán
    • Normann Fischer
    • Veselin Skendzic

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20160701
    Testing Line Distance Relays During Their Life Cycle

    This paper discusses relay testing concepts, using a line distance relay element as an example.

    Авторы

    • Fernando Calero
    • Rajkumar Swaminathan

    Представлено на

    2016
    • GCC Power
    Код даты: 20160602
    Current Transformer Selection Techniques for Low-Voltage Motor Control Centers

    This paper provides a clear set of procedures and equations to follow in optimal current transformer selection for low-voltage motor control centers.

    Авторы

    • Scott Manson
    • Ashish Upreti

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20160505
    Defense-in-Depth Security for Industrial Control Systems

    This paper describes a defense-in-depth scheme that applies specifically to the industrial control system realm, with implementation details and an example system.

    Авторы

    • Jess Smith
    • Nathan Kipp
    • Dennis Gammel
    • Tim Watkins

    Представлено на

    2016
    • EEA Conference
    Код даты: 20160505
    New Deterministic, High-Speed, Wide-Area Analog Synchronized Data Acquisition – Creating Opportunities for Previously Unachievable Control Strategies

    This paper explains a novel data acquisition method that supports accurate, synchronized, wide-area power flow summation at fixed millisecond intervals.

    Авторы

    • Javier Martín Herrera, Red Eléctrica de España
    • Matias Sanchez Mingarro, Red Eléctrica de España
    • Santiago López Barba, Red Eléctrica de España
    • David Dolezilek
    • Fernando Calero
    • Amandeep Kalra
    • Brian Waldron

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    2017
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    Код даты: 20160429
    Upgrading From a Successful Emergency Control System to a Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection, Automation, and Control System for the Country of Georgia Power System

    This paper summarizes the successful addition of a remedial action scheme to an in-service emergency control system in the country of Georgia.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Diego Rodas

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PAC World Conference
    Код даты: 20160429
    Protection of High-Voltage AC Cables

    In this paper, we briefly discuss the types of underground cables, their bonding and grounding methods, and the fundamental differences between overhead transmission lines and cable electrical characteristics. Finally, we discuss the application of short-circuit protection for high-voltage ac cables.

    Подготовил

    • Demetrios A. Tziouvaras

    Представлено на

    2005
    • WPRC
    2006
    • Clemson PSC
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160425
    Validating Transmission Line Impedances Using Known Event Data

    This paper discusses how to use event data (voltages, currents, and fault location) from relays at two ends of a transmission line to calculate positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence line impedances. Impedances calculated from real event data can be used to validate relay settings and short-circuit models.

    Авторы

    • Ariana Amberg
    • Alex Rangel
    • Greg Smelich

    Представлено на

    2012
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    2013
    • Clemson PSC
    • MIPSYCON

    Сопутствующие материалы

    Код даты: 20160425
    Generator Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection Using a Stator-Rotor-Bound Differential Element

    This paper proposes a new principle for generator turn-to-turn fault protection based on the ampere-turn balance between the stator negative-sequence current and the double-frequency component of the field current. The paper describes two protection elements using this principle: a stator-rotor current unbalance element that uses the current magnitudes and a stator-rotor current differential element that uses the current phasors. The paper derives the new methods, discusses their dependability, sensitivity, and security, and illustrates their operation with computer simulations and test results from a physical made-to-scale generator.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Normann Fischer
    • Héctor J. Altuve
    • Douglas Taylor

    Представлено на

    2017
    • PAC World Conference
    • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
    2019
    • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
    • RVP-AI
    Код даты: 20160421
    Advances in Motor Protection Relay Features

    This paper discusses key elements of creating a reliable motor protection system, including thermal modeling, the detection of broken rotor bars, and arc-flash detection.

    Авторы

    • Ricardo Abboud
    • Paulo Lima
    • John Needs
    • Alejandro Rodriguez
    • Dibyendu Bhattacharya, BP Exploration Operating Co., Ltd.

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PCIC Europe
    Код даты: 20160419
    Cybersecurity Best Practices for Creating Resilient Control Systems

    This paper provides eight basic guidelines to improve cybersecurity for industrial control systems.

    Авторы

    • Jess Smith
    • Joshua Pereyda
    • Dennis Gammel
    Код даты: 20160401
    Mitigating the Impacts of Photovoltaics on the Power System

    This paper describes the impacts of photovoltaic (PV) installations on power systems and discusses different mitigation methods to address them. The paper proposes a solution to minimize the impacts by using the concept of coordinated control between the substation and the PV generation plant.

    Авторы

    • Kei Hao
    • Shankar Achanta
    • Ben Rowland
    • Andy Kivi

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
    • PAC World Americas
    2017
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20160331
    Simulation and Analysis of Voltage Sag During Transformer Energization on an Offshore Platform

    This paper analyzes the voltage sags that occurred during a simulated transformer energization study for an offshore platform.

    Авторы

    • Srinath Raghavan
    • Rekha T. Jagaduri
    • Bruce J. Hall, Marathon Oil Company

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20160331
    Case Study: Integrating the Power Management System of an Existing Oil Production Field

    This paper describes the implementation of a power management system for a mature oil field facility and how the system was optimized to use utility generation, its own generation, or both combined for the reliability, stability, and scalability of the facility power system.

    Авторы

    • Kei Hao
    • Abdel Rahman Khatib
    • Niraj Shah
    • Nevil Herbert, Chevron

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20160330
    Accurate Fault Locating During a Pole-Open Condition

    This paper demonstrates that errors will exist with a conventional single- or double-ended fault location calculation if the fault occurs during a pole-open condition. Compensated algorithms are presented that achieve accurate fault location under these conditions.

    Авторы

    • Gabriel Benmouyal
    • Brian Smyth

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    Код даты: 20160317
    A Novel Design for an Expandable, Modular Microgrid Unit

    This paper proposes a modular microgrid unit (MMGU) that can work autonomously but is also capable of connecting to other MMGUs to form an expandable microgrid.

    Авторы

    • Bamdad Falahati
    • Eric Chua
    • Ali Kazemi

    Представлено на

    2016
    • IEEE PES ISGT
    Код даты: 20160226
    Catching Falling Conductors in Midair – Detecting and Tripping Broken Distribution Circuit Conductors at Protection Speeds

    This paper describes a new falling conductor detection scheme that trips the affected circuit section in the narrow time window between the moment of the break and the time the conductor hits the ground. The affected circuit section is de-energized while the conductor is still falling, eliminating the risk of an arcing ground fault or energized circuits on the ground.

    Авторы

    • William O'Brien, San Diego Gas & Electric Company
    • Eric Udren, Quanta Technology, LLC
    • Kamal Garg
    • Dennis Haes
    • Bala Sridharan

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160215
    How Transformer DC Winding Resistance Testing Can Cause Generator Relays to Operate

    In this paper, a real-world event and simulations are used to study the impact of dc winding resistance testing on the magnetizing current of a transformer. Solutions are provided to mitigate possible unintended operations.

    Авторы

    • Ritwik Chowdhury
    • Mircea Rusicior
    • Jakov Vico
    • Jason Young

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20160215
    An Introduction to Applying Network Intrusion Detection for Industrial Control Systems

    This paper is an introduction to the deployment of a network intrusion detection system for industrial control systems.

    Авторы

    • Tom Bartman
    • Jason Kraft

    Представлено на

    2016
    • AISTech
    Код даты: 20160212
    Modern Protection of Three-Phase and Spare Transformer Banks

    This paper discusses protection system designs for three single-phase-and-spare transformer banks. Ways to improve sensitivity and make it possible to precisely indicate the fault location in the bank are illustrated with examples. The paper also discusses how to design the system to easily reconfigure the differential zones for any spare substitution configuration.

    Авторы

    • Michael Thompson
    • Faridul Katha Basha
    • Craig Holt

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • WPRC
    Код даты: 20160212
    University Implements Distribution Automation to Enhance System Reliability and Optimize Operations

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a distribution automation system developed to detect electric faults using fault indicators and automatically reconfigure the distribution system topology to isolate faulted sections and restore service to the de-energized loads.

    Авторы

    • Tyler J. Hjorth, Texas A&M University
    • Payal Gupta
    • Ashok Balasubramanian

    Представлено на

    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    2017
    • PEAC
    Код даты: 20160212
    Considerations for Using High-Impedance or Low-Impedance Relays for Bus Differential Protection

    Two drastically different types of differential relays, one with a single set of very high-impedance inputs and another with multiple sets of low-impedance inputs, are available for bus differential protection. This paper discusses for each type of relay the concepts used, the pros and cons, and the importance that current transformer selection plays in applications.

    Авторы

    • Ken Behrendt
    • David Costello
    • Stanley E. Zocholl

    Представлено на

    2008
    • WPRC
    2010
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2013
    • IEEE I&CPS
    Код даты: 20160210
    Voltage and Current Inversion Challenges When Protecting Series-Compensated Lines – A Case Study

    This paper discusses improving the security and dependability of line current differential protection schemes on series-compensated transmission lines prone to current inversion.

    Авторы

    • Eric Bakie, Idaho Power
    • Curtis Westhoff, Idaho Power
    • Normann Fischer
    • Jordan Bell

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160209
    Capturing Generator Rotor Angle and Field Quantities – SDG&E Experience and Approach to Using Nontraditional Generator Measurements

    This paper discusses the installation and commissioning of a generator rotor angle and field quantities measurement system at a 740 MVA combined cycle plant. The paper discusses the lessons learned and possible applications using these measurements.

    Авторы

    • Tariq Rahman, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Subburaman Sankaran, San Diego Gas & Electric
    • Nicholas Seeley
    • Kamal Garg

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160208
    Do CTs Like DC? Performance of Current Transformers With Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    This paper describes the effect geomagnetically induced currents have on CTs and the resulting impact on protection security and dependability. The paper supports its claims with simulated as well as experimental results.

    Авторы

    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Normann Fischer
    • Douglas Taylor
    • Tejasvi Prakash
    • Jeevan Jalli

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160208
    Man-Made Faults – Line Protection Operation for an Unintended Phase Cross-Connect Condition

    This paper analyzes and explains why the compensator phase distance elements operated for a utility that experienced a phase cross-connect condition when personnel inadvertently crossed two phases during line switch installation. This paper also discusses the theory of operation of compensator phase distance relays and methods for making elements secure in similar phase cross-connect conditions.

    Авторы

    • Jon Larson
    • Ryan McDaniel

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    2017
    • PowerTest Conference
    Код даты: 20160208
    Maximizing Line Protection Reliability, Speed, and Sensitivity

    This paper describes and evaluates several commonly applied line protection schemes using analysis tools like fault trees, power system studies, and event analysis. The paper compares the protection schemes in terms of speed, sensitivity, security, dependability, and selectivity.

    Авторы

    • Héctor J. Altuve
    • Karl Zimmerman
    • Demetrios Tziouvaras

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160208
    Millisecond, Microsecond, Nanosecond: What Can We Do With More Precise Time?

    This paper explains modern nanosecond precision time technologies and new applications they enable.

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • David E. Whitehead
    • Greg Zweigle
    • Veselin Skendzic
    • Shankar V. Achanta

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160208
    Performance of Time-Domain Line Protection Elements on Real-World Faults

    Ultra-high-speed line protection is becoming a reality today, giving the industry a way to trip line faults in a few milliseconds. One relay described in this paper that uses time-domain principles incorporates incremental-quantity (TD32) and traveling-wave (TW32) directional elements in a communications-assisted tripping scheme, incremental-quantity distance element (TD21), and traveling-wave differential element (TW87). This paper introduces these time-domain line protection elements, shares key details of their implementation in hardware, and illustrates their operation using real-world faults and digital simulations. By comparing the performance of the time-domain line protection elements with the traditional phasor-based elements of the in-service relays that captured the fault records, we demonstrate the performance of the time-domain line
    protection elements.

    Авторы

    • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
    • Bogdan Kasztenny
    • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Georgia Tech PRC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20160208
    Protection System for a Wind Generation Plant in Panama: Challenges and Solutions

    This paper describes the protection challenges and solutions associated with the Penonomé wind power plant in Panama. The paper discusses protection coordination requirements and results, provides recommendations for future enhancements of the protection system, and concludes with a description of an actual event involving two cross-country faults in a 34.5 kV system.

    Авторы

    • Darío Vila, Instalaciones y Servicios CODEPA S.A.
    • Eliseo Alcázar
    • Jorge Juárez
    • Pedro Loza
    • Héctor J. Altuve

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160208
    Accurate Single-End Fault Location and Line-Length Estimation Using Traveling Waves

    This paper discusses a novel single-end traveling-wave-based fault location (TWFL) method that uses current traveling waves to identify reflections from the fault, the remote end, and any discontinuity on the transmission line. The TWFL estimation results are validated with actual line patrol findings.

    Авторы

    • E. O. Schweitzer, III
    • A. Guzmán
    • M. Mynam
    • V. Skendzic
    • B. Kasztenny
    • C. Gallacher, Avista Utilities
    • S. Marx, Bonneville Power Administration

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20160205
    Line Protection Response to a Three-Phase Intercircuit Fault

    This paper describes the post-fault analysis following a three-phase intercircuit fault on parallel 138 kV transmission lines. Fault study data associated with single fault conditions on each line are compared with time-synchronized disturbance data from protective relays.

    Авторы

    • Ernie Hodge, Gainesville Regional Utilities
    • Edsel Atienza

    Представлено на

    2015
    • Georgia Tech FDA
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160205
    Securing Communications for SCADA and Critical Industrial Systems

    This paper details the threats that SCADA and industrial control systems face, how to detect and counter those threats, and how to apply countermeasures, new technologies, and safe practices to these systems.

    Авторы

    • Tom Bartman
    • Kevin Carson

    Представлено на

    2015
    • MIPSYCON
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Americas
    2016
    • Clemson PSC
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160205
    Speed and Security Considerations for Protection Channels

    This paper describes the communications requirements for various protection and control applications, and it discusses the advantages and disadvantages of communications technologies. The paper also describes how network topologies can improve security and dependability, and it discusses cybersecurity practices that are suitable for securing protection communications links.

    Авторы

    • Shankar V. Achanta
    • Ryan Bradetich
    • Ken Fodero

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160205
    Understanding Generator Stator Ground Faults and Their Protection Schemes

    This paper provides an overview of winding insulation failure modes related to ground faults and discusses all common ground fault protection schemes in detail. The paper contrasts the following aspects of these schemes: sensitivity, speed, security, availability, complexity, and setting considerations.

    Авторы

    • Nathan Klingerman, Duke Energy
    • Dale Finney
    • Satish Samineni
    • Normann Fischer
    • Derrick Haas

    Представлено на

    2015
    • WPRC
    2016
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20160204
    Implementation of a Microprocessor-Based Motor Bus Transfer Scheme

    This paper discusses the implementation of a fast motor bus transfer scheme using existing protective relays. The scheme is designed to respond to local and remote (upstream) events in the substation. This makes possible an attempt to initiate a fast transfer for events that are remote to the motor bus. On a failure to achieve a fast transfer, the scheme resorts to an in-phase transfer and, if that fails, finally a residual transfer. Real-time dynamic modeling was performed to simulate motor bus decay and reacceleration. This paper provides the results of the simulations and the response of the transfer scheme.

    Авторы

    • Prasanna Muralimanohar
    • Derrick Haas
    • John R. McClanahan
    • Rekha T. Jagaduri
    • Stanley Singletary, Valero St. Charles Refinery

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PCIC
    Код даты: 20160121
    Fast Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery in Ethernet Networks for Teleprotection and High-Speed Automation Applications

    This paper provides explanation and comparison of methods of fault identification, isolation, and recovery of data paths in Ethernet networks for high-speed automation and protection applications. SDN is introduced as a new and improved Ethernet transport technology for mission-critical applications.

    Авторы

    • David Dolezilek
    • Colin Gordon
    • Dwight Anderson

    Представлено на

    2016
    • PEAC
    • PAC World Americas
    Код даты: 20160114
    Determining the Faulted Phase

    This paper shares details about three challenging case studies and their root causes.

    Авторы

    • David Costello
    • Karl Zimmerman

    Представлено на

    2009
    • WPRC
    2010
    • Texas A&M Relay Conference
    Код даты: 20151209
    Communications-Capable Fault Indicators Improve Outage Response for Coastal Oregon

    This paper discusses Phase 2 of the ongoing distribution automation pilot project by Central Lincoln People's Utility District, focusing on the fault indicators used in the project and highlighting lessons learned.

    Авторы

    • JW Knapek
    • Jakob Fowler
    • Shamus Gamache, Central Lincoln People’'s Utility District

    Представлено на

    2015
    • PEAC
    2016
    • DistribuTECH
    • REPC
    Код даты: 20151207
    Field Testing of 3G Cellular and Wireless Serial Radio Communications for Smart Grid Applications

    This paper compares the results of using two different wireless technologies, serial radios and cellular modems, to simultaneously stream synchrophasor data from four different locations along a rural feeder to a photovoltaic generation site.

    Авторы

    • Bill Flerchinger
    • JW Knapek
    • Robert Ferraro, Portland General Electric
    • Chris Steeprow, Portland General Electric
    • Michael Mills-Price, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc.

    Представлено на

    2014
    • PEAC
    2015
    • DistribuTECH
    2016
    • REPC
    Код даты: 20151207
    A Novel Method for Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection of Generator Stators and Rotors

    This paper proposes a new principle for generator turn-to-turn fault protection based on the ampere-turn balance between the stator negative-sequence current and the double-frequency component of the field current. The paper describes two protection elements using this principle: a stator-rotor current unbalance element that uses the current magnitudes and a stator-rotor current differential element that uses the current phasors. The paper derives the new methods, discusses their dependability, sensitivity, and security, and illustrates their operation with computer simulations and test results from a physical made-to-scale generator.

    Авторы

    • B. Kasztenny
    • N. Fischer
    • D. Taylor

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151119
    Implementing a Dual Triple Modular Redundant Country-Wide Special Protection System

    A centralized series of dual triple modular redundant special protection systems have been implemented in Taiwan. This paper covers their design, testing, and implementation.

    Авторы

    • T. Lewis
    • J. Day
    • A. Rodriguez

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151119
    Innovative Data Acquisition and Redundancy Methods Enable Previously Impractical High-Speed, Wide-Area Control

    This paper describes the new high-speed data acquisition and precise synchronization strategies used for the design of the communications network required for an HVDC link between Spain and France. Various contingency scenarios to improve the availability and reliability of the system are discussed along with several new hardware and software redundancy methods to improve the overall control system dependability and security.

    Авторы

    • D. Dolezilek
    • F. Calero
    • A. Kalra
    • B. Waldron
    • J. M. Herrera, Red Eléctrica de España
    • M. S. Mingarro, Red Eléctrica de España
    • S. L. Barba, Red Eléctrica de España

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151119
    Antimotoring Protection With Dependability-Biased Characteristic

    This paper describes a new directional power algorithm in the form of an adaptive characteristic that provides a dependability bias to ensure tripping during an inadvertent motoring event.

    Авторы

    • M. Thompson
    • D. Finney

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151118
    Advancements in Synchronizing Systems for Microgrids and Grid Restoration

    This paper provides guidance to transmission system operators and protection and control engineers on how to overcome the technical  limitations imposed by traditional technology for synchronizing islanded microgrids with advanced technology.

    Подготовил

    • M. Thompson

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151117
    Applying New Technology to Improve the Performance of Teleprotection Communications

    This paper describes the shortcomings of PRP and HSR and how to create Ethernet redundancy and duplication via software-defined networking (SDN). Examples illustrate how SDN methods create lossless signal delivery (with the use of Ethernet packets) and address issues of teleprotection, interlocking, and automation applications based on IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging.

    Авторы

    • D. Dolezilek
    • C. Gordon
    • D. Anderson

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151117
    Appropriate Testing Reveals New Best-in-Class Topology for Ethernet Networks

    This paper describes new special-purpose test devices and procedures to verify Ethernet network configuration and performance. The results of research using these test procedures are explained, which reveal new network topology recommendations and associated configuration recommendations for protection signal messages, such as multicast GOOSE messages.

    Авторы

    • D. Dolezilek
    • J. Dearien
    • A. Kalra
    • J. Needs

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151117
    Impact of Geomagnetically Induced Currents on Protection Current Transformers

    This paper analyzes the performance of CTs under the presence of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). The paper proposes a simple CT model to analyze the GIC problem and applies it, as well as laboratory tests on a physical CT, to explain and quantify the impact of GICs on CTs. We conclude that the impact to protective relays is minimal.

    Авторы

    • B. Kasztenny
    • D. Taylor
    • N. Fischer

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151117
    Improving Reliability and Security of Protection Algorithms Via Signal Message Supervision

    This paper illustrates the methods and benefits of supervising the timely and accurate receipt of GOOSE messages and calculating a binary logic representation of the success of digital message exchange of protection signals. This status, referred to as message quality, is used as a qualifier in communications-assisted protection and automation logic to adapt the logic immediately after communications fail.

    Авторы

    • P. Franco
    • G. Rocha
    • D. Dolezilek

    Представлено на

    2016
    • DPSP
    Код даты: 20151117