Artigos Técnicos


Título
Autor
Apresentado em
Código de data
Resultados
(723)

Ordenar por

Interrupção de Energia Induzida por Ataque Cibernético na Ucrânia: Análise e Estratégias Práticas de Mitigação

Este artigo fornece uma análise da interrupção de energia induzida por ataque cibernético na Ucrânia de 23 de dezembro de 2015 e apresenta uma discussão sobre os métodos de mitigação e recomendações que teriam protegido o sistema de controle da Ucrânia.

Autores

  • David E. Whitehead
  • Kevin Owens
  • Dennis Gammel
  • Jess Smith

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Conference
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20161014
Avanços nos Recursos dos Relés de Proteção de Motores

Este artigo discute os elementos-chave da criação de um sistema confiável de proteção de motor, incluindo a modelagem térmica, a detecção de barras rompidas no rotor e a detecção de arco voltaico.

Autores

  • Ricardo Abboud
  • Paulo Lima
  • John Needs
  • Alejandro Rodriguez
  • Dibyendu Bhattacharya, BP Exploration Operating Co., Ltd.

Apresentado em

2016
  • PCIC Europe
Código de data: 20160419
Estimação Precisa da Localização da Falta e do Comprimento da Linha Baseada em um Terminal Usando Ondas Viajantes


Autores

  • E. O. Schweitzer, III
  • A. Guzmán
  • M. Mynam
  • V. Skendzic
  • B. Kasztenny
  • C. Gallacher, Avista Utilities
  • S. Marx, Bonneville Power Administration

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20160205
Um Novo Método para Detecção de Faltas Entre Espiras no Rotor e Estator de Geradores


Autores

  • B. Kasztenny
  • N. Fischer
  • D. Taylor

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151119
Princípios e Implementação da Nova Proteção de Linha no Domínio do Tempo


Autores

  • E. O. Schweitzer, III
  • B. Kasztenny
  • M. Mynam
  • A. Guzmán
  • V. Skendzic

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
2017
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20151116
Um Novo Método para Medição Rápida da Frequência em Aplicações de Proteção


Autor

  • B. Kasztenny

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151112
Proteção de Filtros de Harmônicos em uma Instalação HVDC ±600 kV

Este artigo apresenta a filosofia dos relés de proteção adotada para proteger os filtros de harmônicos em uma instalação de 600 kV bipolares, associada com uma linha de transmissão em corrente contínua de 2400 km no Brasil.

Autores

  • Eduardo Brandi, Furnas
  • Ricardo Abboud
  • Fernando Calero

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150914
A Importância dos Sistemas de Controle Coordenados nas Usinas de Geração Solar

Este artigo descreve a operação de um sistema de controle de uma usina de geração FV frente aos desafios associados à interligação destas instalações ao sistema de potência.

Autores

  • Michael Mills-Price, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc.
  • Kei Hao

Apresentado em

2014
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20140729
As Redes Definidas por Software Atendem aos Requisitos do Sistema de Controle

Este artigo discute o uso de redes definidas por software (SDN: “Software-Defined Network”), uma nova arquitetura na tecnologia de redes, visando preencher a lacuna entre a interoperabilidade e os requisitos de transporte das comunicações de alta confiabilidade para o sistema de potência.

Autores

  • Rakesh Bobba, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • Donald R. Borries, Ameren Illinois
  • Rod Hilburn, Ameren Illinois
  • Joyce Sanders, Ameren Illinois
  • Mark Hadley, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Rhett Smith
Código de data: 20140423
Atenuando as Vulnerabilidades do GPS

Este artigo fornece uma visão geral das tecnologias e sistemas baseados em tempo normalmente utilizados para fornecer tempo preciso, discute as vulnerabilidades do sistema de tempo baseado em GPS e explica como projetar sistemas de distribuição de tempo resilientes para aplicações do sistema de potência visando atenuar estas vulnerabilidades.

Autores

  • Shankar Achanta
  • Steve T. Watt
  • Eric Sagen

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20140205
Tutorial Avançado de Análise de Eventos Parte 1: Questões

Os relatórios de evento continuam a ser um recurso inestimável dos relés baseados em microprocessador. A análise de alguns eventos é relativamente simples e direta, mas outros exigem experiência e conhecimento considerável do sistema de potência e do sistema de relés de proteção para encontrar a causa raiz. Esta sessão fornece diversos exemplos de eventos avançados do mundo real, tempo para avaliação dos mesmos, e soluções.

Autor

  • Karl Zimmerman
Código de data: 20130724
Localização de Faltas em Relés de Proteção Baseada no Princípio das Ondas Viajantes: Projeto, Testes e Resultados

Este artigo fornece um tutorial sobre a localização de faltas baseada em onda viajante ("traveling wave" – TW) e descreve um algoritmo de localização de faltas baseado em TW que usa medições com sincronização de tempo das correntes das TWs nos terminais da linha para determinar a localização da falta.

Autores

  • Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
  • Brian K. Johnson, University of Idaho
  • Armando Guzman
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

Apresentado em

2013
  • Georgia Tech FDA
Código de data: 20130309
Estudo de Caso: Aplicação de IEC 61850 em uma Subestação de Transmissão de Gana

Este artigo discute vários aspectos essenciais do projeto elétrico, projeto da rede de comunicação, proteção e controle, além dos testes e comissionamento de uma subestação baseada no IEC 61850.

Autores

  • Charles E. Anderson, Meade Electric Company, Inc.
  • Salim Zniber
  • Youssef Botza
  • David Dolezilek
  • Justin McDevitt

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Conference
  • PAC World Africa
Código de data: 20130213
Esquema de Automação e Gerenciamento de Energia para Redes de Canais de Água

Este artigo descreve os benefícios da aplicação da tecnologia multifuncional nos sistemas de automação de controle dos canais de água. De forma similar a uma aplicação de distribuição de energia, protocolos de comunicação, lógicas padronizadas e dispositivos robustos são usados para monitorar e controlar o fluxo de água, gerenciando ao mesmo tempo a energia necessária para o processo.

Autores

  • David Dolezilek
  • Amandeep Kalra

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
2014
  • DistribuTECH
Código de data: 20130212
Explorando o Controle Dinâmico de Tensão

Este artigo explora um método de controle de tensão com o objetivo de conservação de energia. A abordagem tradicional da redução da tensão de conservação nem sempre é a abordagem adequada para todos os tipos de cargas de alimentadores; algumas cargas operam de forma mais eficiente em uma tensão mais alta.

Autores

  • Greg Hataway, PowerSouth Energy Cooperative
  • Dallas Jacobsen
  • Marcos Donolo

Apresentado em

2012
  • WPDAC
Código de data: 20120223
Projeto, Implementação e Experiência Prática de um Sistema de Controle de Emergência para o Sistema de Potência do País da Geórgia

Primeiro, este artigo apresenta os desafios do sistema de potência existente e os requisitos para o ECS. Em seguida, são descritos o projeto da solução do ECS e a rede de comunicação.

Autores

  • Alexander Didbaridze, JSC Georgian State Electrosystem
  • Siegmar Leutloff, JSC Georgian State Electrosystem
  • Diego Rodas
  • Fernando Calero

Apresentado em

2012
  • PAC World Conference
  • WPDAC
2013
  • DistribuTECH
Código de data: 20120216
Localização de Faltas em Relés de Proteção Através de Ondas Viajantes

Este artigo discute os aspectos de implementação e aplicação da localização de faltas através de ondas viajantes em um relé de proteção. Limitações de desempenho são discutidas, bem como os requisitos do sistema e considerações da instalação prática.

Autores

  • N. Fischer
  • V. Skendzic
  • R. Moxley
  • J. Needs

Apresentado em

2012
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20120209
O Impacto do Sistema de Excitação dos Geradores Síncronos nos Relés e Sistemas de Proteção

O objetivo deste artigo não é rever os princípios de proteção dos geradores, pois isso já foi amplamente efetuado em outros trabalhos, mas sim relembrar os princípios básicos de física e engenharia que estão por trás da interação entre o AVR de um gerador síncrono e seus limitadores associados, além de algumas funções de proteção de geradores.

Autor

  • Gabriel Benmouyal

Apresentado em

2007
  • WPRC
2008
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20120124
Tutorial de Análise de Eventos Parte 1: Definição dos Problemas

Os relatórios de evento têm sido um recurso inestimável dos relés microprocessados desde a introdução inicial da tecnologia. Os dias de causa raiz desconhecida para interrupções de operação prolongadas ou resultados de testes inexplicáveis estão amplamente superados devido à esta ferramenta e à capacidade de utilização da mesma por engenheiros e técnicos. É necessário praticar para se tornar proficiente na análise de relatórios de evento. Esta sessão fornece exemplos de eventos do mundo real, tempo para avaliação dos mesmos, e soluções.

Autor

  • David Costello
Código de data: 20120113
Seleção de TCs para Otimização do Desempenho dos Relés

Este artigo analisa os efeitos da saturação em vários desses elementos e fornece diretrizes de aplicação que eliminam ou minimizam o risco de saturação do TC.

Autores

  • Gabriel Benmouyal, IREQ
  • Jeff Roberts
  • Stanley E. Zocholl
Código de data: 20110627
Sincrofasores Redefinindo os Sistemas SCADA

Este artigo discute o sistema SCADA existente e o sistema de monitoramento de uma área ampla (“wide-area monitoring system” – WAMS) recentemente instalado no Centro de Despacho de Carga da Região Norte (“Northern Regional Load Despatch Centre” – NRLDC) da “Power Grid Corporation of India Limited” (PGCIL).

Autores

  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Ala Harikrishna
  • Vivek Singh

Apresentado em

2011
  • WPDAC
2013
  • GRIDTECH
Código de data: 20110330
Sistema de Monitoramento de Subestações de Distribuição

Considerando a competitividade do mercado de energia elétrica, a prevenção de faltas e defeitos nos equipamentos primários das subestações é considerada um fator diferencial significativo para a qualidade da energia elétrica fornecida pelas concessionárias. A redução do número de faltas e defeitos que causam interrupções no suprimento de energia elétrica contribui enormemente para a melhoria dos índices de desempenho dos serviços prestados. Para atingir este objetivo, é necessária a adoção de práticas de manutenção mais eficientes e inteligentes, além da aplicação adequada dos recursos materiais, humanos e financeiros.

Autores

  • Geraldo Rocha
  • David Dolezilek
  • Fernando Ayello
  • Carlos Oliveira

Apresentado em

2011
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20110314
Usando a Diferença Angular dos Fasores Sincronizados para Proteção e Controle de Áreas Abrangentes do Sistema

Neste artigo, apresentamos um exemplo de um esquema de rejeição de geração nos sistemas de transmissão de 400 kV, onde a CFE está avaliando o uso da diferença angular através das medições fasoriais sincronizadas para melhorar a confiabilidade dos esquemas de rejeição de geração existentes.

Autores

  • Enrique Martínez, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Nicolás Juárez, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Armando Guzmán
  • Greg Zweigle
  • Jean León

Apresentado em

2006
  • WPRC
2007
  • DistribuTECH
Código de data: 20110309
Aplicação de Rádios para Melhorar a Operação da Proteção Elétrica

Este artigo discute os conceitos fundamentais dos sistemas de rádio, considerando-os em termos dos requisitos de controle e proteção para os modernos sistemas de potência.

Autores

  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Brian MacLeod
  • Eric Sagen
  • Henry Loehner

Apresentado em

2010
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20100908
A Importância da Memória ECC no Computador de Sua Subestação

Este artigo aborda outro método para aumentar a confiabilidade dos computadores de subestações - projetá-los para usar memória com código de correção de erros (ECC: “Error-Correcting Code”). O uso da memória ECC minimiza a classe de erros de memória específicos de inversão de bits (“single bit flips”). Quase todos os computadores de classe de servidor usam memória ECC, mas muito poucos computadores de subestação usam memória ECC.

Autor

  • John Harrell
Código de data: 20100716
Elementos de Distância Quadrilaterais de Fase e Terra Adaptativos

Neste artigo, discutiremos um esquema de distância quadrilateral adaptativo que pode detectar resistência de falta maior do que na implementação anterior. Além disso, o artigo discute as considerações da aplicação dos elementos de distância quadrilaterais.

Autores

  • Fernando Calero
  • Armando Guzman
  • Gabriel Benmouyal

Apresentado em

2009
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20091214
Estudo de Caso: Uso de Métodos Baseados no Protocolo IEC 61850 para Substituição das UTRs e Automação Distribuída

Este artigo apresenta um teste efetuado recentemente pela área de distribuição de uma concessionária de energia elétrica para substituição das Unidades Terminais Remotas (UTRs) das chaves de seccionamento do tipo "padmounted" por controladores de automação  programáveis expansíveis, baseados no protocolo IEC 61850.

Autores

  • Robin Jenkins
  • David Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2008
  • MIPSYCON
  • WPDAC
2010
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20090623
Localização de Faltas em Câmaras Subterrâneas Urbanas da CFE

Este artigo descreve a solução adotada pela Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE), que instalou com sucesso um sistema de indicação de faltas com comunicação sem fio a um leitor remoto portátil em seu sistema de distribuição subterrâneo.

Autores

  • Jesus Borrayo Sanchez, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Juan M. Farias Garibay, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Gerardo Urrea Grijalva

Apresentado em

2009
  • DistribuTECH
Código de data: 20090109
Aplicação do IEC 61850 no Mundo Real: Projeto de Modernização de 30 Subestações Elétricas

Este artigo descreve o projeto de modernização e energização da SE Guarujá 2, uma subestação integrada através da suite de protocolos IEC 61850.

Autores

  • Sergio Kimura, Elektro Eletricidade e Serviços S.A.
  • Andre Rotta, Elektro Eletricidade e Serviços S.A.
  • Ricardo Abboud
  • Eduardo Zanirato
  • Rogério Moraes
  • Juliano Bahia

Apresentado em

2008
  • WPDAC
2010
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20080403
Evitando Danos ao Gerador e ao Sistema Provocados por Retardo do Disjuntor de Sincronização

Devido aos casos já registrados de disjuntores fechando com retardos, uma segura e confiável solução custo-benefício foi desenvolvida para evitar problemas futuros.

Autores

  • Lawrence C. Gross, Jr.
  • L. Scott Anderson
  • Richard C. Young, Wisconsin Electric Power Company

Apresentado em

1997
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20070524
Esquema de Rejeição de Cargas Flexível e de Alta Velocidade Usando Crosspoint Switch

Este artigo analisa o conceito e aplicação de crosspoint switches de alta velocidade para implementação do esquema de rejeição de cargas numa instalação industrial.

Autores

  • Will Allen
  • Tony Lee

Apresentado em

2005
  • WPRC
2006
  • Clemson PSC
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20050928
Projeto de Modernização da Subestação Palou, Universidade de Stanford

A Universidade de Stanford empenhou-se na execução do projeto de modernização dos sistemas de proteção e controle de sua Subestação Palou.

Autores

  • Steve Briscombe, Stanford University
  • Glyn Lewis, Applied Power
  • Michael Thompson

Apresentado em

2004
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20041108
Melhore a Confiabilidade do Sistema de Potência Usando Relés de Proteção Multifunção

Os relés de proteção multifunção possuem recursos abrangentes de monitoração que podem detectar os estados de alerta e de emergência, minimizar os distúrbios no sistema e evitar o colapso do mesmo.

Autor

  • Armando Guzman
Código de data: 20030916
Proteção para Fontes Delta Não Esperadas

Este artigo analisa várias técnicas usadas para detectar faltas provenientes de fontes delta. O artigo faz uma revisão da natureza das contribuições da corrente de falta e das características a tensão das fontes delta não aterradas, usando a análise das componentes de seqüência. O artigo também discute o possível impacto dos sistemas de controle do gerador distribuído e a proteção da interconexão.

Autor

  • Ken Behrendt

Apresentado em

2002
  • WPRC
2003
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20021023
O Efeito da Elevada Corrente de Falta e dos Limites das Características Nominais do TC na Proteção de Sobrecorrente

Os transformadores de corrente utilizados nas linhas de transmissão são especificados para evitar saturação durante a porção assimétrica da máxima corrente de falta. A saturação é evitada através da seleção da tensão nominal ANSI maior do que a tensão na carga para o valor máximo de falta, com o fator (1 + X/R) aplicado. Isto é possível nas aplicações de proteção de linhas, uma vez que as elevadas correntes de carga resultam no uso de TCs com alta relação e as correntes de falta são normalmente limitadas de três a cinco, e raramente ultrapassam dez, vezes a corrente primária nominal do TC.

Autores

  • Gabriel Benmouyal
  • Stanley E. Zocholl

Apresentado em

2002
  • WPRC
2003
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • MIPSYCON
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20021001
Comparando a Confiabilidade de Topologias de Redes Ethernet nas Redes de Supervisão e Controle de Subestações

Este artigo avalia a confiabilidade das topologias Ethernet de conexão de subestações para a conexão de dispositivos.

Autores

  • Gary W. Scheer
  • David J. Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2000
  • WPDAC
Código de data: 20020612
“Sympathetic Trip” - Problemas, Análises e Soluções

Este artigo descreve duas soluções simples com relés, as quais dão a segurança necessária ao “sympathetic trip”, e mantêm a sensibilidade de detecção de faltas desejada. Também apresenta exemplos do sistema, que ilustram como inserir as impedâncias das cargas nos diagramas de componentes simétricas.

Autores

  • Jeff Roberts
  • Terrence L. Stulo, Nevada Power Company
  • Andres Reyes, Omicron Electronics Corp. USA

Apresentado em

1997
  • WPRC
1998
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20020501
Solução Turnkey Comprovada de Casas de Controle Drop-In para Proteção, Monitoração, Automação e Controle Total de Subestações de T&D: Um Estudo de Caso para Justificativa e Implementação

Este artigo foi desenvolvido como um estudo de caso do projeto e instalação de uma casa de controle de uma subestação.

Autores

  • Brian McDermott, Duke Power
  • David Dolezilek
  • Timothy P. Tibbals

Apresentado em

2002
  • DistribuTECH
  • Georgia Tech PRC
2003
  • WPDAC
Código de data: 20011107
Questões Relacionadas com Aplicação de Rede Ethernet em Subestações

Este artigo fornece uma introdução à utilização de rede Ethernet nas subestações de energia elétrica. Além dos termos e conceitos básicos das redes Ethernet, ele trata de assuntos específicos relativos às redes Ethernet em subestações.

Autor

  • Darold Woodward

Apresentado em

2001
  • WPDAC
Código de data: 20010301
Preocupações a Respeito de Invasões em Controladores de Acesso Remoto Instalados em Subestações e Sistemas SCADA

Neste artigo, identificamos as ameaças a controladores de subestações e sistemas SCADA e discutimos mecanismos de mitigação para reduzir a vulnerabilidade às invasões eletrônicas maliciosas.

Autores

  • Paul Oman
  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Deborah Frincke, University of Idaho

Apresentado em

2000
  • WPRC
  • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
2001
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20001004
Medindo e Melhorando a Capacidade de Chaveamento de Contatos Metálicos

Este artigo discute o processo de fechamento e interrupção dos contatos metálicos.

Autores

  • Tony Lee
  • Edmund O. Schweitzer III

Apresentado em

1999
  • WPRC
2000
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20000211
Proteção para Cabos Subterrâneos/Submarinos Usando Esquema de Comparação Direcional de Seqüência-Negativa

O artigo discute a modelagem dos cabos através de componentes simétricas e analisa a performance do elemento direcional de seqüência-negativa durante condições de faltas nos cabos.

Autores

  • Jesús Vargas, INELAP-PQE.
  • Armando Guzmán
  • Jorge Robles, Comision Federal de Electricidad

Apresentado em

1999
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20000117
Proteção de Banco de Capacitores sem Fusíveis Usando Relés Digitais

Este artigo revisa as tecnologias existentes sobre bancos de capacitores, discute as vantagens e desvantagens das diferentes tecnologias de capacitores e detalha as razões do por quê a Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E) está implementando a tecnologia de capacitores sem fusíveis em todos os novos projetos nos sistemas de 115 e 230 kV.

Autores

  • Malkiat S. Dhillon, Pacific Gas and Electric Co.
  • Demetrios A. Tziouvaras

Apresentado em

1999
  • WPRC
Código de data: 991011
Comunicação Lógica Digital Relé-a-Relé para Controle, Monitoramento e Proteção de Linhas de Transmissão

Este artigo discute uma nova abordagem para encontrar controle, monitoramento e proteção de linha de alta velocidade, utilizando comunicação lógica digital relé-a-relé microprocessado.

Autor

  • Kenneth C. Behrendt
Código de data: 981117
Comparação Estatística e Avaliação dos Esquemas de Proteção Piloto

Nós quantificamos a probabilidade de operações errôneas (sobredisparo, desligamento retardado), cobertura da resistência da falta, tempos de operação e complexidade dos diversos esquemas de proteção populares. Propomos um novo esquema, que proporciona operação mais rápida, melhor cobertura da resistência da falta e minimiza os riscos das operações irregulares.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • John J. Kumm

Apresentado em

1996
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
  • WPRC
1997
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • Electric Council of New England Meeting
  • Pennsylvania Electric Association Relay Committee Meeting
1998
  • Modern Trends in the Protection Schemes of Electric Power Apparatus and Systems
  • CEPSI
Código de data: 980601
Elemento Direcional de Impedância de Seqüência-Negativa

O Relé SEL-321 contém um elemento direcional inovador que usa as grandezas de seqüência-negativa tradicionais de um modo um pouco diferente do que é usado pelos elementos direcionais de seqüência-negativa tradicionais. Este artigo descreve e fornece um método para testar esse novo elemento direcional.

Autor

  • Bill Fleming
Código de data: 980216
Como os Relés Microprocessados Respondem a Harmônicos, Saturação e a Outras Distorções de Onda

Este artigo apresenta a resposta dos relés microprocessados para formas de onda tais como a distorção do terceiro harmônico na corrente do neutro de distribuição, formas de onda de corrente de retificador de seis pulsos com ressonância, corrente de energização magnetizante do transformador e falsa corrente diferencial em TC’s de barramento em anel, causada por remanência desigual.

Autores

  • Stanley E. Zocholl
  • Gabriel Benmouyal

Apresentado em

1997
  • WPRC
1998
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 980211
Aplicações de Relés Microprocessados na Distribuição

Os relés microprocessados na distribuição proporcionam melhorias técnicas e economias no custo sob vários aspectos.

Autor

  • Karl Zimmerman
Código de data: 960301
Aplicações de Relés Microprocessados em Linhas de Transmissão

O artigo conclui mostrando várias aplicações de proteção de linhas de transmissão para os relés microprocessados.

Autor

  • Joe Mooney
Código de data: 960301
Análise de Circuitos Trifásicos e o Misterioso Fator k0

Este artigo é um tutorial sobre a análise de circuitos trifásicos de um circuito de linha de transmissão e é de um padrão que pode facilmente ser implementado num computador, usando um programa matemático como Mathcad.

Autor

  • S. E. Zocholl
Código de data: 950901
Avaliação da Eficiência do Autoteste e Outros Métodos de Monitoramento em Relés de Proteção

Este artigo mais adiante define a eficiência do autoteste em relés digitais.

Autores

  • John J. Kumm
  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Daqing Hou

Apresentado em

1994
  • MIPSYCON
  • WPRC
1995
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • Electric Council of New England Meeting
  • Pennsylvania Electric Association Relay Committee Meeting
Código de data: 950501
Z = V/I Não Faz um Relé de Distância

Este artigo examina o critério baseado em Z = V/I e expõe as degradações devidas ao fluxo de potência e à resistência de falta.

Autores

  • J. Roberts
  • A. Guzman
  • E. O. Schweitzer, III

Apresentado em

1993
  • WPRC
1994
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 940502
Uma Nova Abordagem da Proteção da Distribuição

A maioria dos relés digitais de distribuição proporciona a proteção tradicional para sobrecorrente de fase e terra, funções de religamento e informação limitada sobre medição e eventos. Neste artigo, as características adicionais de relés digitais de istribuição mais avançados serão discutidas.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Gary W. Scheer
  • Mark W. Feltis

Apresentado em

1992
  • International Symposium on Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management
Código de data: 910401
Inglês
Beyond the Nameplate – Selecting Transformer Compensation Settings for Secure Differential Protection

This paper presents simple rules for the correct selection of transformer differential relay compensation settings and their application to real-world installations.

Autores

  • Barker Edwards, PowerServices, Inc.
  • David G. Williams, FirstEnergy Corporation
  • Ariana Hargrave
  • Matthew Watkins
  • Vinod K. Yedidi

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
2017
  • MIPSYCON
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20171108
Redundant Bus Protection Using High-Impedance Differential Relays

This paper examines various options for obtaining bus protection redundancy. The paper includes an emphasis on examining various methods of applying dual relays in an existing high-impedance bus differential CT circuit.

Autores

  • Josh LaBlanc, Minnesota Power
  • Michael J. Thompson

Apresentado em

2017
  • MIPSYCON
Código de data: 20171020
An Error-Checking Method for Delta-Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters Employing Mth-Order Sinc Filters

This paper develops an error-checking method for analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and presents test results for a commercially available ADC which indicate that the error-checking scheme is useful for detecting catastrophic data converter failures.

Autor

  • Travis C. Mallett
Código de data: 20171020
Analyzing Faulted Transmission Lines: Phase Components as an Alternative to Symmetrical Components

This paper demonstrates how to analyze faulted transmission lines using phase components (Phase A, Phase B, Phase C) as an alternative to symmetrical components (positive-sequence, negative-sequence, and zero-sequence). The paper explores both steady-state and time-domain applications, with emphasis on generating reliable test signals. Advantages of the phase-domain approach are discussed.

Autores

  • Steven Chase
  • Sumit Sawai
  • Amol Kathe

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20171016
Directional Elements – How Fast Can They Be?

This paper presents a communications-based protection scheme that uses incremental-quantity and traveling-wave-based directional elements to make tripping decisions where coupling capacitor voltage transformers (CCVTs) provide voltage signals to these elements. The paper uses field events captured during forward and reverse faults to analyze the performance of the proposed permissive overreaching transfer trip (POTT) scheme, which achieves operating times on the order of 4 to 6 milliseconds.

Autores

  • Armando Guzmán
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Jean León Eternod
  • Rafael Martínez Morales, Comisión Federal de Electricidad

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170914
Leveraging Digital Relays for Protection of Pumped Storage Hydro

This paper describes the challenges associated with protecting pumped storage hydro units. It discusses how digital protective relay schemes provide simpler and more effective protection than traditional electromechanical relay schemes.

Autores

  • Terry Foxcroft, Snowy Hydro Limited
  • Normann Fischer
  • Dale Finney
  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • Marcos Donolo
  • Douglas Taylor

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170913
Sharing Direct Fiber Channels Between Protection and Enterprise Applications Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing

This paper reports on an experimental investigation that uses wavelength division multiplexing in high-performance power system protection applications. The investigation was performed using the latest generation of carrier-grade optical transport network (OTN) equipment. The paper documents the performance, opportunities, and pitfalls associated with this application and outlines practical strategies for the seamless integration of protection systems with the latest generation of OTN technologies.

Autores

  • Jonathan Sykes, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
  • Dewey Day, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
  • Kevin Fennelly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Normann Fischer

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170912
Accurate and Economical Traveling-Wave Fault Locating Without Communications

This paper describes a single-ended traveling-wave-based fault-locating method that works with currents only and explains how to perform fault locating manually using ultra-high-resolution fault records from any recording device. This paper also presents laboratory test results as well as field cases in which line crews found the actual faults.

Autores

  • Armando Guzmán
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Yajian Tong
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170912
Electromagnetic Torque From Event Report Data – A Measure of Machine Performance

This paper demonstrates how electromagnetic torque responses can be used to measure the impact of events on a motor in a power system. The paper shows examples of calculating electromagnetic torque using oscillographic event report data obtained from digital motor protection.

Autores

  • Dale Finney
  • Derrick Haas

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170911
Beyond the Knee Point: A Practical Guide to CT Saturation

This paper describes how CTs saturate in a simple and intuitive way. The paper describes symmetrical and asymmetrical saturation, remanence, the CT equivalent circuit, the CT excitation graph, ANSI ratings, and how to analyze CT performance using simple equations and tools. It then shows how to detect CT saturation in relay event reports and how relay operation can be compromised during CT saturation.

Autores

  • Ariana Hargrave
  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Brad Heilman

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170911
Testing IEC 61850 Merging Units

This paper presents an efficient and systematic approach for evaluating merging units. It offers engineers help, particularly during merging unit testing, in understanding certain characteristics of a merging unit and in gaining confidence with Sampled Values technology.

Autores

  • Qiaoyin Yang
  • David Keckalo
  • David Dolezilek
  • Ed Cenzon

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170907
Robust Microgrid Control System for Seamless Transition Between Grid-Tied and Island Operating Modes

This paper discusses the complex challenge of achieving seamless transition between grid-tied and island operation of critical facilities while highlighting fast, reliable, and adaptive protection and control solutions.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Bharath Nayak
  • Will Allen

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170907
Locating Faults Before the Breaker Opens – Adaptive Autoreclosing Based on the Location of the Fault

This paper reviews the merits of controlling autoreclosing based on the location of the fault. Special attention is given to hybrid lines comprising underground cable sections and overhead line sections. The paper explains how the traveling-wave technology allows precise fault locating on these lines and how to use the fault location for autoreclosing for faults on overhead sections and blocking autoreclosing for faults on cable sections.

Autores

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Armando Guzmán
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Titiksha Joshi

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170907
A Unified Approach to Controlled Switching of Power Equipment

This paper reviews what can be achieved with a modern controlled switching device in terms of improving power quality, protecting both the power equipment and the breaker, and improving protective relay reliability.

Autores

  • Gabriel Benmouyal
  • Normann Fischer
  • Douglas Taylor
  • Mark Talbott-Williams
  • Ritwik Chowdhury

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170907
Using the Multi-Loop Fault Analysis Method for Setting and Evaluating Generator Protection Elements

In this paper, the multi-loop fault analysis method is used to determine the sensitivity and coverage provided by various generator internal-fault protection elements for interturn, interbranch, phase-to-phase, and series faults.

Autores

  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • Dale Finney
  • Normann Fischer

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170906
High-Impedance Differential Applications With Mismatched CTs

This paper discusses high-impedance differential protection with respect to applying the scheme with mismatched-ratio CTs. The paper describes methods for accommodating mismatched CTs and reports on high-current laboratory testing of CTs. The testing was performed to assess the risk caused by overvoltage on the end terminal of a higher-ratio CT that was tapped at a lower ratio and connected to a high-impedance differential relay.

Autores

  • Russ Franklin, Alliant Energy
  • Hossein Nabi-Bidhendi, ABB Inc.
  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Héctor J. Altuve

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170906
Distance Protection: Why Have We Started With a Circle, Does It Matter, and What Else Is Out There?

This paper explains the principles and illustrates the operation of distance protection including traditional mho and quadrilateral elements, new time-domain incremental quantity distance elements, and future distance elements based on voltage and current traveling waves.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Bogdan Kasztenny

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170906
Purpose-Engineered, Active-Defense Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems

This paper describes the Chess Master project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, which will apply software-defined networking to advance energy sector network cybersecurity.

Autores

  • Rhett Smith
  • Roger Hill (Veracity Industrial Networks, Inc.)
Código de data: 20170824
Using Protective Relays for Microgrid Controls

This paper explains how microprocessor-based protective relays are used to provide both control and protection functions for small microgrids. Features described in the paper include automatic islanding, reconnection to the electric power system, dispatch of distributed generation, compliance to IEEE specifications, load shedding, volt/VAR control, and frequency and power control at the point of common coupling.

Autores

  • William Edwards
  • Scott Manson

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170822
Lessons Learned From Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Microgrid Control Systems

This paper describes the modeling benefits, challenges, and lessons learned associated with controller hardware-in-the-loop testing. The microgrid system used in this study has a 3 MW battery, 5 MW photovoltaic array, 4 MW diesel generator set, and 3.5 MW combined heat and power generation system.

Autores

  • E. Limpaecher, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory
  • R. Salcedo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory
  • E. Corbett, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory
  • S. Manson
  • B. Nayak
  • W. Allen

Apresentado em

2017
  • Grid of the Future
Código de data: 20170810
Expanding Protection and Control Communications Networks With Wireless Radio Links

This paper examines the application of GOOSE over Ethernet radios and the associated challenges. The paper shares results from a real-world implementation, including results from GOOSE latency tests for protection and control applications.

Autores

  • Laura Rogers, Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc.
  • Tom Bartman
  • Ben Rowland

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20170731
Deterministic Communications for Protection Applications Over Packet-Based Wide-Area Networks

This paper introduces a deterministic packet transport method of achieving guaranteed latency for critical traffic being transported over packet-based wide-area networks. The method is standard-agnostic, and it elegantly addresses the challenge of migrating time-division multiplexing-based protection circuits to Ethernet without impacting the performance of the network.

Autores

  • Kenneth Fodero
  • Christopher Huntley
  • Paul Robertson

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20170728
Case Study – Improving System Performance Using Distribution Network Automation

This paper describes how Westar Energy implemented a cost-effective distribution automation system that is now providing a very capable and fully automated fault location, isolation, and service restoration and volt/VAR distribution solution.

Autores

  • Aaron Smith, Westar Energy
  • Mike Watson, Westar Energy
  • Jeff Hauber, Westar Energy
  • Clayton Stubbs, Westar Energy
  • Bill Flerchinger
  • Dennis Haes
  • Will Allen

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
2017
  • Grid of the Future
Código de data: 20170727
IEC 61850 Beyond Compliance: A Case Study of Modernizing Automation Systems in Transmission Power Substations in Emirate of Dubai Towards Smart Grid

In an effort to move towards smart grid, the Dubai Electricity & Water Authority initiated a long-term contract for the supply, installation, testing, and commissioning of 33 substations with modern automation systems for transmission power substations. This paper discusses the system requirements and various engineering decisions that resulted from lessons learned during the system design stage to ensure that the system is ready for future smart grid requirements. Various analysis tools and testing techniques are described that were used to quantify the performance attributes of the IEC 61850-based system design.

Autores

  • Sultan Al Obaidli, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
  • Venkataraman Subramaniam, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
  • Hamood Alhuseini, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
  • Ramesh Gupta, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority
  • David Dolezilek
  • Amandeep Kalra
  • Prasanth Sankar

Apresentado em

2017
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
Código de data: 20170714
Understanding Design, Installation, and Testing Methods That Promote Substation IED Resiliency for High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Events

This paper demonstrates intelligent electronic device (IED) resiliency to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events through analysis and test results. It presents substation grounding and wiring practices that are HEMP resilient and also highlights available HEMP standards as they relate to IEDs and substation control houses. This information will help utilities prevent unnecessary mitigation efforts and address the concerns regarding the effects of HEMP on substations and substation IEDs.

Autores

  • Tim Minteer
  • Travis Mooney
  • Sharla Artz
  • David E. Whitehead

Apresentado em

2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170712
Isochronous Load Sharing Principles for an Islanded System With Steam and Gas Turbine Generators

This paper discusses the fundamentals of how to perform isochronous load sharing in an islanded power system with various makes and sizes of generators (steam and gas turbines). The paper details the decentralized generation control system and also presents other topics crucial for industrial power systems.

Autores

  • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
  • Brandon Bosley, Kiewit Engineering & Design Co.
  • Julio Garcia, Kiewit Engineering & Design Co.
  • Ty Clark, Dominion

Apresentado em

2017
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20170707
Using Defense in Depth to Safely Present SCADA Data for Read-Only and Corporate Reporting

By using a defense-in-depth approach, you can provide read-only SCADA data and Syslog messages to corporate or other networks. The layered defense includes adding a perimeter network, read-only HMI and Syslog server, and a one-way data sending mechanism through SDN and unidirectional firewall rules.

Autor

  • Rick Bryson
Código de data: 20170620
A New Use for Fault Indicators - SEL Revolutionizes Distribution System Protection

This paper discusses the benefits of applying the new SEL-FT50/SEL-FR12 Fault Transmitter and Receiver System to enhance distribution system protection.

Autores

  • Steve T. Watt
  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Peter Selejan
Código de data: 20170606
A Simple Method for Determining Fault Location on Distribution Lines

This paper examines methods available for fault location and describes the method employed at Fayetteville PWC. It shares the results of Fayetteville PWC's pilot project and provides the information to implement their fault location system on the reader's distribution system.

Autores

  • Thomas Covington, Fayetteville Public Works Commission
  • Tim Stankiewicz, Fayetteville Public Works Commission
  • Rick Anderson, Fayetteville Public Works Commission
  • Larry Wright
  • Brett Cockerham

Apresentado em

2017
  • WPRC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20170504
Synchronism-Check Application Over a Wide-Area Network

This paper describes the design and testing of the first stage of a synchronism-check upgrade to the Whakamaru Power Station. The scheme allows simultaneous synchronization of up to four 11 kV generators with up to four 220 kV lines located over one kilometer apart.

Autores

  • Russell Hyde, Mercury
  • Brett Hampson
Código de data: 20170503
A Current Story – When Primary Met Secondary

This paper describes the analysis and resulting investigation that occurred when a CT secondary wire made contact with a transformer bushing, causing an outage at a 138 kV substation.

Autores

  • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Swagata Das
  • Ariana Hargrave

Apresentado em

2016
  • MIPSYCON
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170503
Understanding the Dynamic Mho Distance Characteristic

This paper examines the dynamic mho expansion for positive-sequence memory polarization during a variety of different faults and changing system conditions.

Autor

  • Donald D. Fentie

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • MIPSYCON
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170426
Understanding the Limitations of Replaying Relay-Created COMTRADE Event Files Through Microprocessor-Based Relays

This paper highlights critical parts of the COMTRADE standard and limitations to replaying event files into a relay. It also provides readers a deeper understanding of COMTRADE files and how replaying system disturbances can yield different responses in the protection elements when compared with the original event.

Autores

  • Brett M. Cockerham
  • John C. Town

Apresentado em

2017
  • Georgia Tech FDA
Código de data: 20170331
Practical Cybersecurity for Protection and Control System Communications Networks

This paper explains practical design principles to follow for networked protection and control systems. Proven cybersecurity best practices, system architectures, monitoring methods, and defense-in-depth techniques are described.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Dwight Anderson

Apresentado em

2017
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20170328
System Integrity Protection Schemes in the 400 kV Transmission Network of Turkey

This paper describes two regional system integrity protection schemes implemented in Turkey to avoid regional blackouts and the propagation of disturbances to neighboring countries.

Autores

  • Francesco Iliceto, University of Rome
  • Özkan Akansel, TEİAŞ
  • Mevlüt Akdeniz, TEİAŞ
  • Süleyman Erikci, TEİAŞ
  • Yusuf Zafer Korkmaz
  • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar

Apresentado em

2017
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20170321
Lessons Learned: Benefits of Using Standardized Protocols to Replace Substation Copper Field Wiring With Digital Communications

This paper introduces the acceptance criteria for digital messages and LAN performance between data producers and data consumers that are necessary in order to exchange signals to support distributed mission-critical applications. It also compares the attributes of five popular protocols to provide information necessary for designers to understand the behavior and performance of each protocol.

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • A. Kalra
Código de data: 20170321
Secure and Reliable GPS-Based Time Distribution

This paper introduces the concept of using terrestrial private communications networks for the distribution of high-accuracy time and provides methods for mitigating specific GPS vulnerabilities.

Autores

  • Kenneth Fodero
  • Christopher Huntley
  • Paul Robertson
Código de data: 20170320
Case Study of Time-Domain Automation and Communications: Field-Proven Benefits to Automation, Control, Monitoring, and Special Protection Schemes

This paper explains a novel data acquisition method that supports accurate, synchronized, wide-area power flow summation at fixed millisecond intervals.

Autores

  • J. M. Herrera, Red Eléctrica de España
  • M. S. Mingarro, Red Eléctrica de España
  • S. L. Barba, Red Eléctrica de España
  • D. Dolezilek
  • F. Calero
  • A. Kalra
  • B. Waldron
Código de data: 20170317
Taking Full Control of Your Process Bus LAN Using New Ethernet Packet Transport Technologies

This paper explains the technical issues that have been addressed during the past decade of Sampled Values technology development and explains how these issues are resolved with the use of software-defined networking for process local-area network packet switching and fault recovery. It also introduces the correlation between accessible electricity and economic improvements, and it discusses the importance of low installation costs, low lifecycle costs, and high availability and resistance for added or expanded power systems.

Autor

  • D. Dolezilek
Código de data: 20170313
New and Emerging Solutions for Sampled Value Process Bus IEC 61850-9-2 Standard – An Editor’s Perspective

This paper analyzes the Sampled Value process bus concepts that have recently been updated by various IEC working groups. The authors are engineers with over a decade of participation in developing the IEC communications standards.

Autores

  • V. Skendzic
  • D. Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2017
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
Código de data: 20170309
Case Study of Time-Domain Protection: Field-Proven Benefits to Protection, Control, and Monitoring

This paper provides a basic explanation of time-domain protection and traveling-wave fault location principles and discusses the power system benefits gained from ultra-high-speed protection, precise and fast fault location, and megahertz sampling rates. It also discusses real-world problems solved by applying time-domain technology.

Autores

  • R. Abboud
  • D. Dolezilek
Código de data: 20170307
Correlating Protective Relay Reports for System-Wide, Post-Event Analysis

This paper shares the initial results and benefits that Blue Ridge Energy Cooperative has achieved by bringing intelligent electronic device oscillography from across their system together in one application.

Autores

  • Eric McCollum, Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative
  • Jared Bestebreur
  • John Town
  • Andy Gould

Apresentado em

2017
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20170306
Ethernet-Based Line Differential Protection Over Passive Multiplexers

This paper describes a three-terminal line differential protection project designed for a rail company as part of a refurbishment project. The paper explains each of the different technologies used for this project, including line differential over Ethernet, coarse wave division multiplexers, and managed switch configuration. It also provides details of the performance of the system in terms of speed and stability.

Autores

  • Ron Nathan
  • Chido Chandakabata
  • Ray Barnes, Metro Trains

Apresentado em

2017
  • SEAPAC
Código de data: 20170228
An Exercise in Trust: Examining the Future of Cryptographic Technology in Electrical Control Systems

This paper presents actionable information regarding the critical requirements of a fully trusted industrial control system network. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of existing solutions for implementing trust management.

Autor

  • Colin Gray

Apresentado em

2017
  • SEAPAC
Código de data: 20170228
Lessons Learned and Successful Root Cause Analysis of Elusive Ethernet Network Failures in Installed Systems

This paper summarizes the Ethernet packet performance time definitions in IEC 61850 Edition 1 and the new IEC 61850 Edition 2 time classes, introduces subscribing device features required to confirm proper packet exchange, and illustrates case study examples of in-service local-area network (LAN) failures.

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • J. Dearien
  • M. van Rensburg

Apresentado em

2017
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
Código de data: 20170227
Software-Defined Networking Changes the Paradigm for Mission-Critical Operational Technology Networks

The principles of software-defined networking (SDN) offer significant benefits for operational technology (OT) networking by addressing the limitations of traditional Ethernet. Read more in this white paper.

Autor

  • Paul Robertson
Código de data: 20170214
Protection Challenges for North America’s First Combined Cable/Overhead Double-Circuit 500 kV Transmission Line With Mutual Coupling

Southern California Edison is protecting a new 500 kV mutually coupled transmission line incorporating both overhead and underground sections. This paper discusses the protection challenges faced with this type of arrangement and describes using real-time digital simulation to evaluate the performance of the protection system.

Autores

  • Denis Bucco, Southern California Edison
  • Curtis Sanden, Southern California Edison
  • Arturo Torres, Southern California Edison
  • Edward Wong, Southern California Edison
  • Jordan Bell
  • Normann Fischer
  • John Thompson

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170213
Microgrid Islanding and Grid Restoration With Off-the-Shelf Utility Protection Equipment

This paper explains how commercial, off-the-shelf protective relays can be used to automatically island microgrids and to then automatically reconnect them to the macrogrid.

Autores

  • William C. Edwards Jr.
  • Scott Manson
  • Jakov Vico
Código de data: 20170213
Choose Simplicity for a Better Digital Substation Design

This paper outlines the benefits of using digital communications between primary substation equipment and the protective relays installed in the control house. The authors discuss two methods used to implement a process bus—a switched network and a point-to-point network—and then introduce a new point-to-point, EtherCAT-based digital substation technology that is robust, simple to use, and secure.

Autores

  • Greg Rzepka
  • Scott Wenke
  • Sarah Walling

Apresentado em

2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170213
Apply a Wireless Line Sensor System to Enhance Distribution Protection Schemes

This paper describes the components of a wireless protection sensor system, its integration with protection devices, and how the fault information can be transmitted from the sensors to such devices at protection speeds. Additionally, this paper discusses how protection devices use this low-latency fault information to securely speed up the operation speed of and improve the selectivity of distribution protection schemes.

Autores

  • Kei Hao
  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Jakob Fowler
  • David Keckalo

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • MIPSYCON
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
Código de data: 20170210
Utility Implements Communications-Assisted Special Protection and Control Schemes for Distribution Substations

This paper discusses the functionality and merits of the high-speed distribution protection implemented for the City of College Station's multiple distribution substations using communications-assisted special protection and control schemes. These schemes were implemented to improve the reliability, selectivity, and availability of the power system.

Autores

  • Michael R. Duff, City of College Station
  • Payal Gupta
  • Dharmendra Prajapati
  • Alex Langseth

Apresentado em

2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170209
Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Considerations for Induction Motor Loads

This paper describes an event in which a negative-sequence overcurrent (51Q) element operated for a fault on an adjacent feeder, discusses the impact of voltage unbalance on induction motors, and shares lessons learned to assist engineers to securely set 51Q elements.

Autores

  • Miles Dupuis, Cleco Power LLC
  • Nick Mahoney
  • Aadityaa Padmanabhan
  • Krithika Bhuvaneshwaran

Apresentado em

2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170209
If You Cannot Test It, You Cannot Use It – IEC 61850 GOOSE System Designed With Testing in Mind

This paper provides procedures and guidelines for successfully designing and integrating IEC 61850 GOOSE protection schemes while keeping the feasibility of initial commissioning and future expansion and testing in mind.

Autores

  • Don Burkart, Consolidated Edison of New York
  • William Edwards
  • Anne Atalay
  • Stephen Snuggs

Apresentado em

2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170207
Generator Motoring Protection – Are You Protected?

This paper discusses motoring events and the resulting active and reactive power flows, examines existing reverse power relays used for generator protection, and presents a new algorithm for dependable motoring detection. It also reviews current transformer and voltage transformer accuracy as defined by ANSI IEEE C57.13 and IEC 61869.

Autores

  • Dale Finney
  • Michael Thompson
  • Normann Fischer
  • Amandeep Kalra

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170202
Software-Defined Networking Redefines Performance for Ethernet Control Systems

This paper outlines the three distinct advantages that software-defined networking (SDN) brings to Ethernet-based control systems: dramatically improved packet delivery performance under both normal and fault event conditions, greater cybersecurity without added complexity, and centralized situational awareness with disruptionless change control, enabling seamless scalability.

Autores

  • Mark Hadley, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • David Nicol, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • Rhett Smith

Apresentado em

2017
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20170130
Real-Time Circuit Breaker Health Diagnostics

This paper details a system developed with American Electric Power for monitoring and automatically diagnosing the health of circuit breakers. It presents an overview of real-time data parameters recorded to provide important health diagnostic information that provides insight into the remaining expected life of the breaker. The system uses this information to reduce operations and maintenance costs by eliminating regularly scheduled manual tests and shifting to as-needed maintenance rather than regularly scheduled maintenance.

Autores

  • Jason M. Byerly, American Electric Power
  • Carey Schneider, American Electric Power
  • Robert Schloss
  • Isaac West

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170130
Performance Comparison Between Mho Elements and Incremental Quantity-Based Distance Elements

This paper compares the intrinsic performance of conventional mho elements and incremental quantity-based distance elements, irrespective of the ways they are implemented. Specifically, it explains that incremental distance elements have superior performance, but they have to be supplemented by conventional mho elements because the incremental elements are only available for a short time.

Autores

  • Gabriel Benmouyal
  • Normann Fischer
  • Brian Smyth

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170130
Integrating Synchrophasors and Oscillography for Wide-Area Power System Analysis

This paper describes the design of a system that combines event files stored in protective relays and synchrophasor data streamed from phasor measurement units (PMUs) for wide-area system analysis.

Autores

  • Dora Nakafuji, Hawaiian Electric Company
  • Laura Rogers, Hawaii Electric Light Company
  • Jared Bestebreur
  • Michael Rourke
  • Greg Zweigle

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • PEAC
2017
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170130
Implementing a Microgrid Using Standard Utility Control Equipment

This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of the microgrid controls for the Duke Energy McAlpine Creek microgrid project and the lessons learned from its implementation.

Autores

  • Tom Fenimore, Duke Energy
  • Andy Gould
  • Larry Wright

Apresentado em

2016
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Americas
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170130
High-Speed Reclosing, Switching Surges, and Bus Differential Protection Security – A Case Study

In this paper, we use high-resolution event data to discuss switching surges caused by high-speed reclosing on high-voltage lines and their impact on bus differential relays.

Autores

  • Jeff Iler, American Electric Power
  • Ryan McDaniel

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20170130
Advanced Generator Protection and Monitoring Using Transducer Measurements

This paper introduces new ideas and concepts that complement existing generator protection elements to provide better overall generator protection and monitoring.

Autores

  • Terry Foxcroft, Snowy Hydro Limited
  • Normann Fischer
  • Dale Finney
  • Satish Samineni
  • Yu Xia

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20170130
System for Event Summary Notifications: Preliminary Operational Results at SDG&E

This paper describes the practical implementation details and operational experience of a new oscillation detection system initially operated at San Diego Gas & Electric. Several examples are provided of successful detection and analysis of events using this system.

Autores

  • Tariq Rahman, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Ellery Blood
  • Matt Halladay
  • Jared Bestebreur

Apresentado em

2017
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20170127
Case Study: Lessons Learned Using IEC 61850 Network Engineering Guideline Test Procedures to Troubleshoot Faulty Ethernet Network Installations

This paper addresses the use of IEC 61850 network engineering and testing guidelines for performing network acceptance testing and for troubleshooting in-service Ethernet networks. The paper also explains best practices to configure systems to constantly perform self-tests and monitor and record performance statistics.

Autores

  • Marcel van Rensburg
  • David Dolezilek
  • Jason Dearien

Apresentado em

2017
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20170127
Adaptive Mitigation of Out-of-Step Transients Based on Equal Area Criterion and Energy Balance

This paper discusses improvements to out-of-step protection. These improvements provide adaptive protection based on dynamical system energy balance to more effectively detect potential out-of-step conditions and provide more flexible corrective actions. This method also provides additional robustness by compensating for uncertainties in system parameters.

Autor

  • Ellery A. Blood
Código de data: 20170126
Design and Development of a Microgrid Control System for Integration of Induction Generation With Storage Capability at Saint Paul Island, Alaska

This paper presents a centralized microgrid control system for effective operation of wind turbines and diesel engines coupled to a flywheel electrical storage component on Saint Paul Island. The wind turbines have sufficient capacity to support the entire island without using the diesel engines, allowing the formation of an islanded power system completely powered by renewables. The control system was tested using hardware-in-the-loop simulation with a simplified electrical model of the Saint Paul system.

Autores

  • Abdel Rahman Khatib
  • Bharath Nayak
  • Bowen Dai
  • Jito Coleman, TDX Power, Inc.
  • Steve Hoskins, TDX Power, Inc.
  • Jan Tierson, TDX Power, Inc.
Código de data: 20161214
Security Through Simplicity in Digital Substations

This paper provides a brief overview of SEL’s Time-Domain Link Technology (TiDL) and IEC 61850 as digital substation solutions and assesses the cybersecurity posture of each.

Autor

  • Joe Casebolt
Código de data: 20161122
Direct Cyber-Power Interdependency Study on Microgrid Control

This paper discusses what happens when a microgrid control system fails and quantitatively evaluates the impact on microgrid reliability.

Autores

  • Bamdad Falahati
  • Roberto Costa
  • Amin Kargarian, Louisiana State University
Código de data: 20161026
Microgrid Systems: Design, Control Functions, Modeling, and Field Experience

This paper describes the authors’ experience in designing, installing, and testing microgrid control systems.

Autores

  • S. Manson
  • K. G. Ravikumar
  • S. K. Raghupathula

Apresentado em

2017
  • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
Código de data: 20161014
Remedial Action Scheme Based on Synchrophasor Measurements and System Angle Difference for Peru’s 500 kV Grid

This paper describes the logic design, communications infrastructure, and real-time testing of a remedial action scheme implemented in southern Peru.

Autores

  • Yofre Jacome, COES SINAC
  • Luis Figueroa, Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde
  • Eduardo Palma
  • Fernando Calero
  • Pedro Loza
  • Alejandro Carbajal
  • Ashish Upreti

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • PAC World Conference
  • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
Código de data: 20161010
Practical Setting Considerations for Protective Relays That Use Incremental Quantities and Traveling Waves

This paper reviews a number of typical settings found in incremental quantity- and traveling-wave-based protection elements and provides setting guidelines and examples for various applications, including series-compensated lines and lines with tapped loads.

Autores

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Armando Guzmán
  • Normann Fischer
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Douglas Taylor

Apresentado em

2016
  • WPRC
2017
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
  • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
Código de data: 20160919
Practical Considerations When Protecting Mutually Coupled Lines

This paper provides insights into how mutual coupling affects ground distance, ground overcurrent, and directional elements in different system configurations; offers practical advice for identifying situations where mutual coupling must be considered; and provides step-by-step guidance for setting ground distance and directional overcurrent elements on transmission lines that are affected by mutual coupling.

Autores

  • Craig Holt
  • Michael J. Thompson

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20160909
Defining and Measuring the Performance of Line Protective Relays

This paper focuses on defining and measuring the performance of ultra-high-speed line protective relays, including traveling-wave protection elements.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Armando Guzmán
  • Normann Fischer
  • Veselin Skendzic

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20160701
Testing Line Distance Relays During Their Life Cycle

This paper discusses relay testing concepts, using a line distance relay element as an example.

Autores

  • Fernando Calero
  • Rajkumar Swaminathan
Código de data: 20160602
Modbus Register Addressing and Data Type Variations

This white paper describes the early days of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), the introduction of Modbus protocol, and some of the challenges involved today with device interoperability, specifically challenges related to register addressing and data type formatting.

Autor

  • Chris Bontje
Código de data: 20160523
Defense-in-Depth Security for Industrial Control Systems

This paper describes a defense-in-depth scheme that applies specifically to the industrial control system realm, with implementation details and an example system.

Autores

  • Jess Smith
  • Nathan Kipp
  • Dennis Gammel
  • Tim Watkins
Código de data: 20160505
Current Transformer Selection Techniques for Low-Voltage Motor Control Centers

This paper provides a clear set of procedures and equations to follow in optimal current transformer selection for low-voltage motor control centers.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Ashish Upreti

Apresentado em

2016
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20160505
Upgrading From a Successful Emergency Control System to a Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection, Automation, and Control System for the Country of Georgia Power System

This paper summarizes the successful addition of a remedial action scheme to an in-service emergency control system in the country of Georgia.

Autores

  • David Dolezilek
  • Diego Rodas

Apresentado em

2016
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20160429
New Deterministic, High-Speed, Wide-Area Analog Synchronized Data Acquisition – Creating Opportunities for Previously Unachievable Control Strategies

This paper explains a novel data acquisition method that supports accurate, synchronized, wide-area power flow summation at fixed millisecond intervals.

Autores

  • Javier Martín Herrera, Red Eléctrica de España
  • Matias Sanchez Mingarro, Red Eléctrica de España
  • Santiago López Barba, Red Eléctrica de España
  • David Dolezilek
  • Fernando Calero
  • Amandeep Kalra
  • Brian Waldron

Apresentado em

2016
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Conference
  • PAC World Americas
2017
  • Simposio Iberoamericano Sobre Proteccion de Sistemas Electricos de Potencia
Código de data: 20160429
Validating Transmission Line Impedances Using Known Event Data

This paper discusses how to use event data (voltages, currents, and fault location) from relays at two ends of a transmission line to calculate positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence line impedances. Impedances calculated from real event data can be used to validate relay settings and short-circuit models.

Autores

  • Ariana Amberg
  • Alex Rangel
  • Greg Smelich

Apresentado em

2012
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
2013
  • Clemson PSC
  • MIPSYCON

Conteúdo relacionado

Código de data: 20160425
Protection of High-Voltage AC Cables

In this paper, we briefly discuss the types of underground cables, their bonding and grounding methods, and the fundamental differences between overhead transmission lines and cable electrical characteristics. Finally, we discuss the application of short-circuit protection for high-voltage ac cables.

Autor

  • Demetrios A. Tziouvaras

Apresentado em

2005
  • WPRC
2006
  • Clemson PSC
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160425
Generator Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection Using a Stator-Rotor-Bound Differential Element

This paper proposes a new principle for generator turn-to-turn fault protection based on the ampere-turn balance between the stator negative-sequence current and the double-frequency component of the field current. The paper describes two protection elements using this principle: a stator-rotor current unbalance element that uses the current magnitudes and a stator-rotor current differential element that uses the current phasors. The paper derives the new methods, discusses their dependability, sensitivity, and security, and illustrates their operation with computer simulations and test results from a physical made-to-scale generator.

Autores

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Normann Fischer
  • Héctor J. Altuve
  • Douglas Taylor

Apresentado em

2017
  • PAC World Conference
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
Código de data: 20160421
Cybersecurity Best Practices for Creating Resilient Control Systems

This paper provides eight basic guidelines to improve cybersecurity for industrial control systems.

Autores

  • Jess Smith
  • Joshua Pereyda
  • Dennis Gammel
Código de data: 20160401
Simulation and Analysis of Voltage Sag During Transformer Energization on an Offshore Platform

This paper analyzes the voltage sags that occurred during a simulated transformer energization study for an offshore platform.

Autores

  • Srinath Raghavan
  • Rekha T. Jagaduri
  • Bruce J. Hall, Marathon Oil Company

Apresentado em

2016
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20160331
Mitigating the Impacts of Photovoltaics on the Power System

This paper describes the impacts of photovoltaic (PV) installations on power systems and discusses different mitigation methods to address them. The paper proposes a solution to minimize the impacts by using the concept of coordinated control between the substation and the PV generation plant.

Autores

  • Kei Hao
  • Shankar Achanta
  • Ben Rowland
  • Andy Kivi

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
  • PAC World Americas
2017
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20160331
Case Study: Integrating the Power Management System of an Existing Oil Production Field

This paper describes the implementation of a power management system for a mature oil field facility and how the system was optimized to use utility generation, its own generation, or both combined for the reliability, stability, and scalability of the facility power system.

Autores

  • Kei Hao
  • Abdel Rahman Khatib
  • Niraj Shah
  • Nevil Herbert, Chevron

Apresentado em

2016
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20160330
Accurate Fault Locating During a Pole-Open Condition

This paper demonstrates that errors will exist with a conventional single- or double-ended fault location calculation if the fault occurs during a pole-open condition. Compensated algorithms are presented that achieve accurate fault location under these conditions.

Autores

  • Gabriel Benmouyal
  • Brian Smyth

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech FDA
Código de data: 20160317
Is Your Clock Ticking All the Time? Characterizing Substation-Hardened Clocks for Automation

This paper describes common failure modes for substation clocks and their recovery mechanisms. It also describes test setups with pass/fail criteria to characterize substation-hardened clocks under conditions of electrical and environmental stress.

Autores

  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Larry Thoma
  • Ray Rice
  • Dan Rippon

Apresentado em

2016
  • PEAC
  • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
Código de data: 20160309
A Novel Design for an Expandable, Modular Microgrid Unit

This paper proposes a modular microgrid unit (MMGU) that can work autonomously but is also capable of connecting to other MMGUs to form an expandable microgrid.

Autores

  • Bamdad Falahati
  • Eric Chua
  • Ali Kazemi
Código de data: 20160226
Solutions to Common Distribution Protection Challenges

This paper presents common challenges in distribution protection and demonstrates solutions using the multiple protection elements and custom logic available in modern distribution feeder relays and recloser controls. Solutions are provided to prevent false trips due to inrush, improve protection response times, mitigate conductor slap issues, and improve the performance of noncommunicating loop schemes.

Autores

  • Jeremy Blair
  • Greg Hataway
  • Trevor Mattson

Apresentado em

2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
2017
  • MIPSYCON
Código de data: 20160218
How Transformer DC Winding Resistance Testing Can Cause Generator Relays to Operate

In this paper, a real-world event and simulations are used to study the impact of dc winding resistance testing on the magnetizing current of a transformer. Solutions are provided to mitigate possible unintended operations.

Autores

  • Ritwik Chowdhury
  • Mircea Rusicior
  • Jakov Vico
  • Jason Young

Apresentado em

2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20160215
Catching Falling Conductors in Midair – Detecting and Tripping Broken Distribution Circuit Conductors at Protection Speeds

This paper describes a new falling conductor detection scheme that trips the affected circuit section in the narrow time window between the moment of the break and the time the conductor hits the ground. The affected circuit section is de-energized while the conductor is still falling, eliminating the risk of an arcing ground fault or energized circuits on the ground.

Autores

  • William O'Brien, San Diego Gas & Electric Company
  • Eric Udren, Quanta Technology, LLC
  • Kamal Garg
  • Dennis Haes
  • Bala Sridharan

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160215
University Implements Distribution Automation to Enhance System Reliability and Optimize Operations

This paper discusses the design and implementation of a distribution automation system developed to detect electric faults using fault indicators and automatically reconfigure the distribution system topology to isolate faulted sections and restore service to the de-energized loads.

Autores

  • Tyler J. Hjorth, Texas A&M University
  • Payal Gupta
  • Ashok Balasubramanian

Apresentado em

2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
2017
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20160212
Modern Protection of Three-Phase and Spare Transformer Banks

This paper discusses protection system designs for three single-phase-and-spare transformer banks. Ways to improve sensitivity and make it possible to precisely indicate the fault location in the bank are illustrated with examples. The paper also discusses how to design the system to easily reconfigure the differential zones for any spare substitution configuration.

Autores

  • Michael Thompson
  • Faridul Katha Basha
  • Craig Holt

Apresentado em

2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20160212
An Introduction to Applying Network Intrusion Detection for Industrial Control Systems

This paper is an introduction to the deployment of a network intrusion detection system for industrial control systems.

Autores

  • Tom Bartman
  • Jason Kraft

Apresentado em

2016
  • AISTech
Código de data: 20160212
Considerations for Using High-Impedance or Low-Impedance Relays for Bus Differential Protection

Two drastically different types of differential relays, one with a single set of very high-impedance inputs and another with multiple sets of low-impedance inputs, are available for bus differential protection. This paper discusses for each type of relay the concepts used, the pros and cons, and the importance that current transformer selection plays in applications.

Autores

  • Ken Behrendt
  • David Costello
  • Stanley E. Zocholl

Apresentado em

2008
  • WPRC
2010
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
2013
  • IEEE I&CPS
Código de data: 20160210
Voltage and Current Inversion Challenges When Protecting Series-Compensated Lines – A Case Study

This paper discusses improving the security and dependability of line current differential protection schemes on series-compensated transmission lines prone to current inversion.

Autores

  • Eric Bakie, Idaho Power
  • Curtis Westhoff, Idaho Power
  • Normann Fischer
  • Jordan Bell

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160209
Protection System for a Wind Generation Plant in Panama: Challenges and Solutions

This paper describes the protection challenges and solutions associated with the Penonomé wind power plant in Panama. The paper discusses protection coordination requirements and results, provides recommendations for future enhancements of the protection system, and concludes with a description of an actual event involving two cross-country faults in a 34.5 kV system.

Autores

  • Darío Vila, Instalaciones y Servicios CODEPA S.A.
  • Eliseo Alcázar
  • Jorge Juárez
  • Pedro Loza
  • Héctor J. Altuve

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160208
Performance of Time-Domain Line Protection Elements on Real-World Faults


Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20160208
Millisecond, Microsecond, Nanosecond: What Can We Do With More Precise Time?

This paper explains modern nanosecond precision time technologies and new applications they enable.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • David E. Whitehead
  • Greg Zweigle
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Shankar V. Achanta

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160208
Maximizing Line Protection Reliability, Speed, and Sensitivity

This paper describes and evaluates several commonly applied line protection schemes using analysis tools like fault trees, power system studies, and event analysis. The paper compares the protection schemes in terms of speed, sensitivity, security, dependability, and selectivity.

Autores

  • Héctor J. Altuve
  • Karl Zimmerman
  • Demetrios Tziouvaras

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160208
Man-Made Faults – Line Protection Operation for an Unintended Phase Cross-Connect Condition

This paper analyzes and explains why the compensator phase distance elements operated for a utility that experienced a phase cross-connect condition when personnel inadvertently crossed two phases during line switch installation. This paper also discusses the theory of operation of compensator phase distance relays and methods for making elements secure in similar phase cross-connect conditions.

Autores

  • Jon Larson
  • Ryan McDaniel

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160208
Do CTs Like DC? Performance of Current Transformers With Geomagnetically Induced Currents

This paper describes the effect geomagnetically induced currents have on CTs and the resulting impact on protection security and dependability. The paper supports its claims with simulated as well as experimental results.

Autores

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Normann Fischer
  • Douglas Taylor
  • Tejasvi Prakash
  • Jeevan Jalli

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160208
Capturing Generator Rotor Angle and Field Quantities – SDG&E Experience and Approach to Using Nontraditional Generator Measurements

This paper discusses the installation and commissioning of a generator rotor angle and field quantities measurement system at a 740 MVA combined cycle plant. The paper discusses the lessons learned and possible applications using these measurements.

Autores

  • Tariq Rahman, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Subburaman Sankaran, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Nicholas Seeley
  • Kamal Garg

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160208
Speed and Security Considerations for Protection Channels

This paper describes the communications requirements for various protection and control applications, and it discusses the advantages and disadvantages of communications technologies. The paper also describes how network topologies can improve security and dependability, and it discusses cybersecurity practices that are suitable for securing protection communications links.

Autores

  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Ryan Bradetich
  • Ken Fodero

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160205
Securing Communications for SCADA and Critical Industrial Systems

This paper details the threats that SCADA and industrial control systems face, how to detect and counter those threats, and how to apply countermeasures, new technologies, and safe practices to these systems.

Autores

  • Tom Bartman
  • Kevin Carson

Apresentado em

2015
  • MIPSYCON
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Americas
2016
  • Clemson PSC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160205
Line Protection Response to a Three-Phase Intercircuit Fault

This paper describes the post-fault analysis following a three-phase intercircuit fault on parallel 138 kV transmission lines. Fault study data associated with single fault conditions on each line are compared with time-synchronized disturbance data from protective relays.

Autores

  • Ernie Hodge, Gainesville Regional Utilities
  • Edsel Atienza

Apresentado em

2015
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160205
Understanding Generator Stator Ground Faults and Their Protection Schemes

This paper provides an overview of winding insulation failure modes related to ground faults and discusses all common ground fault protection schemes in detail. The paper contrasts the following aspects of these schemes: sensitivity, speed, security, availability, complexity, and setting considerations.

Autores

  • Nathan Klingerman, Duke Energy
  • Dale Finney
  • Satish Samineni
  • Normann Fischer
  • Derrick Haas

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20160204
Implementation of a Microprocessor-Based Motor Bus Transfer Scheme


Autores

  • Prasanna Muralimanohar
  • Derrick Haas
  • John R. McClanahan
  • Rekha T. Jagaduri
  • Stanley Singletary, Valero St. Charles Refinery

Apresentado em

2016
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20160121
Fast Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery in Ethernet Networks for Teleprotection and High-Speed Automation Applications

This paper provides explanation and comparison of methods of fault identification, isolation, and recovery of data paths in Ethernet networks for high-speed automation and protection applications. SDN is introduced as a new and improved Ethernet transport technology for mission-critical applications.

Autores

  • David Dolezilek
  • Colin Gordon
  • Dwight Anderson

Apresentado em

2016
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20160114
Leveraging Security – Using the SEL RTAC's Built-In Security Features

This white paper discusses SEL Real-Time Automation Controller (RTAC) security concepts and provides configuration examples to empower engineers, technicians, and security personnel to protect critical cyberassets.

Autor

  • Darrin Kite
Código de data: 20160111
Automating Protection System Monitoring and Verification With the SEL RTAC

This white paper describes how to use the SEL Real-Time Automation Controller (RTAC) to build an automated system to continuously monitor and validate many of the components identified in the NERC PRC-005 standard.

Autores

  • Darrin Kite
  • Robin Jenkins
Código de data: 20160111
Determining the Faulted Phase

This paper shares details about three challenging case studies and their root causes.

Autores

  • David Costello
  • Karl Zimmerman

Apresentado em

2009
  • WPRC
2010
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20151209
Field Testing of 3G Cellular and Wireless Serial Radio Communications for Smart Grid Applications

This paper compares the results of using two different wireless technologies, serial radios and cellular modems, to simultaneously stream synchrophasor data from four different locations along a rural feeder to a photovoltaic generation site.

Autores

  • Bill Flerchinger
  • JW Knapek
  • Robert Ferraro, Portland General Electric
  • Chris Steeprow, Portland General Electric
  • Michael Mills-Price, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc.

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
2015
  • DistribuTECH
2016
  • REPC
Código de data: 20151207
Communications-Capable Fault Indicators Improve Outage Response for Coastal Oregon

This paper discusses Phase 2 of the ongoing distribution automation pilot project by Central Lincoln People's Utility District, focusing on the fault indicators used in the project and highlighting lessons learned.

Autores

  • JW Knapek
  • Jakob Fowler
  • Shamus Gamache, Central Lincoln People’'s Utility District

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
2016
  • DistribuTECH
  • REPC
Código de data: 20151207
Innovative Data Acquisition and Redundancy Methods Enable Previously Impractical High-Speed, Wide-Area Control

This paper describes the new high-speed data acquisition and precise synchronization strategies used for the design of the communications network required for an HVDC link between Spain and France. Various contingency scenarios to improve the availability and reliability of the system are discussed along with several new hardware and software redundancy methods to improve the overall control system dependability and security.

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • F. Calero
  • A. Kalra
  • B. Waldron
  • J. M. Herrera, Red Eléctrica de España
  • M. S. Mingarro, Red Eléctrica de España
  • S. L. Barba, Red Eléctrica de España

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151119
Implementing a Dual Triple Modular Redundant Country-Wide Special Protection System

A centralized series of dual triple modular redundant special protection systems have been implemented in Taiwan. This paper covers their design, testing, and implementation.

Autores

  • T. Lewis
  • J. Day
  • A. Rodriguez

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151119
Antimotoring Protection With Dependability-Biased Characteristic

This paper describes a new directional power algorithm in the form of an adaptive characteristic that provides a dependability bias to ensure tripping during an inadvertent motoring event.

Autores

  • M. Thompson
  • D. Finney

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151118
Improving Reliability and Security of Protection Algorithms Via Signal Message Supervision

This paper illustrates the methods and benefits of supervising the timely and accurate receipt of GOOSE messages and calculating a binary logic representation of the success of digital message exchange of protection signals. This status, referred to as message quality, is used as a qualifier in communications-assisted protection and automation logic to adapt the logic immediately after communications fail.

Autores

  • P. Franco
  • G. Rocha
  • D. Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151117
Impact of Geomagnetically Induced Currents on Protection Current Transformers

This paper analyzes the performance of CTs under the presence of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). The paper proposes a simple CT model to analyze the GIC problem and applies it, as well as laboratory tests on a physical CT, to explain and quantify the impact of GICs on CTs. We conclude that the impact to protective relays is minimal.

Autores

  • B. Kasztenny
  • D. Taylor
  • N. Fischer

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151117
Appropriate Testing Reveals New Best-in-Class Topology for Ethernet Networks

This paper describes new special-purpose test devices and procedures to verify Ethernet network configuration and performance. The results of research using these test procedures are explained, which reveal new network topology recommendations and associated configuration recommendations for protection signal messages, such as multicast GOOSE messages.

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • J. Dearien
  • A. Kalra
  • J. Needs

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151117
Applying New Technology to Improve the Performance of Teleprotection Communications

This paper describes the shortcomings of PRP and HSR and how to create Ethernet redundancy and duplication via software-defined networking (SDN). Examples illustrate how SDN methods create lossless signal delivery (with the use of Ethernet packets) and address issues of teleprotection, interlocking, and automation applications based on IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging.

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • C. Gordon
  • D. Anderson

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151117
An SEL Approach to Modifying Transformer Protection for Nuclear Stations

This white paper addresses the design considerations for modifying transformer protection at an existing nuclear station and the SEL equipment that can be used to implement that design.

Autor

  • Larry Wright
Código de data: 20151117
Advancements in Synchronizing Systems for Microgrids and Grid Restoration

This paper provides guidance to transmission system operators and protection and control engineers on how to overcome the technical  limitations imposed by traditional technology for synchronizing islanded microgrids with advanced technology.

Autor

  • M. Thompson

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151117
A Novel Method for Detecting Ground Faults on an Ungrounded Power System


Autores

  • N. Fischer
  • A. Kalra
  • D. Haes
  • D. Kirby, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power

Apresentado em

2016
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20151116
Implementing a Country-Wide Modular Remedial Action Scheme in Uruguay

This paper presents a country-wide remedial action scheme (RAS) implemented in Usinas y Trasmisiones Eléctricas (UTE) in Uruguay. The RAS consists of six different schemes operating independently and, in certain cases, simultaneously to calculate power system states and take the remedial actions.

Autores

  • Julián Malcón, Usinas y Trasmisiones Eléctricas
  • Nicolás Yedrzejewski, Usinas y Trasmisiones Eléctricas
  • Ashok Balasubramanian
  • Rameez Syed
  • Sai Krishna Raghupathula

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20151023
Field Experience With Detecting an Arcing Ground Fault on a Generator Neutral Point

This paper analyzes event reports that indicated an arcing ground on the neutral end of a large generator. It investigates the limitations of ground protection techniques as well as techniques to overcome these limitations when detecting an arcing ground fault.

Autores

  • Nathan Klingerman, Duke Energy
  • Larry Wright

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
2016
  • Clemson PSC
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20151020
Selecting an Ethernet Failure Recovery Method for Protection and High-Speed Automation Applications

This paper compares the mechanisms for quickly reconfiguring Ethernet networks to satisfy mission-critical performance metrics while providing simultaneous duplicate or redundant signal exchange. The paper also describes the redundancy and duplication methods that are available in software-defined networking.

Autores

  • David Dolezilek
  • Colin Gordon
  • Dwight Anderson
  • Timothy Tibbals
  • David Keckalo

Apresentado em

2015
  • PAC World Africa
Código de data: 20151019
Case Study: Using IEC 61850 Network Engineering Guideline Test Procedures to Diagnose and Analyze Ethernet Network Installations

This paper addresses the use of IEC 61850 network engineering and testing guidelines for troubleshooting Ethernet networks. The paper shares practical examples of detecting problems, finding root cause, and correcting communications problems in operational systems in South Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Autores

  • Marcel van Rensburg
  • David Dolezilek
  • Jason Dearien

Apresentado em

2015
  • PAC World Africa
Código de data: 20151019
Beyond Protection and Control Schematic and Logic Diagrams

This paper explains why new design possibilities provided by modern IEDs make it difficult to describe protection and control system functionality using traditional schematic diagrams. The paper describes one utility's experience as they worked to modernize their logic and documentation, and it discusses the new guidelines they developed and adopted for logic diagram creation.

Autores

  • Daniel Espinosa, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Santos López, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Humberto Calderón, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Carlos Meléndez, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Maycol Flores, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Angel Reza
  • Eliseo Alcázar
  • Héctor J. Altuve

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150914
Advanced Synchronising System Provides Flexibility for Complex Bus Arrangement

This paper is a case study describing the implementation and testing of an advanced automatic synchronising system for a complex and flexible 330 kV bus arrangement used for connecting two hydroelectric generating stations to the transmission grid.

Autores

  • Terry Foxcroft, Snowy Hydro Limited
  • Michael Thompson

Apresentado em

2015
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150911
Case Study: Achieving Selectivity on a Critical Distribution Network

This paper presents the advanced solutions implemented for the protection of a crucial metropolitan distribution network that consists of several parallel circuits between a single-source substation and two load-serving substations.

Autores

  • Jim Thomas, American Electric Power
  • Andrew K. Burich
  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Sneha Vasudevan

Apresentado em

2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150909
Failure Modes in IEC 61850-Enabled Substation Automation Systems


Autores

  • Bamdad Falahati
  • Eric Chua

Apresentado em

2016
  • IEEE PES T&D
Código de data: 20150805
Analysis of Fault-Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery Using EMTP Simulations

This paper describes a point-on-wave model development and simulation study that supports a broader investigation of the effect of air conditioning and similar loads on the recovery of electric utility voltage after faults.

Autores

  • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
  • Scott Manson
  • John Undrill, Private Contractor
  • Joseph H. Eto, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Apresentado em

2016
  • IEEE PES T&D
Código de data: 20150805
Protection System for Phase-Shifting Transformers Improves Simplicity, Dependability, and Security

This paper summarizes present protection recommendations and their limitations for the three most common types of PSTs. The paper then reports on the further development of a differential element that has been in successful use for many years, is sensitive to all fault types (including turn-to-turn faults), and can be applied to any type of PST using only CTs on the source and load sides of the PST zone.

Autor

  • Michael Thompson

Apresentado em

2012
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150526
Modern Ethernet Failure Recovery Methods for Teleprotection and High-Speed Automation

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • C. Gordon
  • D. Anderson
  • T. Tibbals
Código de data: 20150526
Mutual Impedance in Parallel Lines – Protective Relaying and Fault Location Considerations

This paper illustrates the benefit of measuring I0p (the parallel line zero-sequence current) for fault location.

Autor

  • Fernando Calero

Apresentado em

2007
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150513
Advanced Synchronizing Systems Improve Reliability and Flexibility of Offshore Power Systems


Autores

  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Allen Li
  • Roy Luo
  • Michael C. Tu, Chevron USA
  • Iris Urdaneta, Chevron USA

Apresentado em

2015
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20150507
Simplifying Teleprotection Communications With New Packet Transport Technology

Autores

  • David Dolezilek
  • Colin Gordon
  • Dwight Anderson
  • Steel McCreery
  • William C. Edwards Jr.

Apresentado em

2015
  • PAC World Africa
Código de data: 20150422
Lessons Learned Through Commissioning and Analyzing Data From Ethernet Network Installations

Autores

  • D. Dolezilek
  • J. Dearien
Código de data: 20150422
Case Study: Increasing Reliability, Dependability, and Security of Digital Signals Via Redundancy and Supervision

Autores

  • Paulo Franco
  • Geraldo Rocha
  • David Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2015
  • PAC World Africa
Código de data: 20150422
Load Modeling Assumptions: What Is Accurate Enough?

This paper identifies how accurately loads must be modeled, specifically for frequency stability studies. It also provides a simple reference that engineers can use to specify the level of detail required when load modeling industrial power systems.

Autores

  • Abdel Rahman Khatib
  • Mahipathi Appannagari
  • Scott Manson
  • Spencer Goodall

Apresentado em

2015
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20150413
Solving Turbine Governor Instability at Low-Load Conditions

This paper shares the methods used to find root cause and solve a governor-induced frequency instability problem.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Bill Kennedy, BHP Billiton Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd.
  • Matt Checksfield, Powerplan Engineers Pty Ltd.

Apresentado em

2015
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20150410
Complete Power Management System for an Industrial Refinery

This paper discusses a fully redundant power management system for a major oil field in Saudi Arabia with a production capacity of 750,000 barrels of oil per day.

Autores

  • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
  • Scott Manson
  • Sai Krishna Raghupathula
  • Turky Alghamdi, Saudi Aramco
  • Jamal Bugshan, Saudi Aramco

Apresentado em

2015
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20150408
Securing Critical Industrial Systems With SEL Solutions

The purpose of this paper is to detail the cybersecurity risks on industrial control systems and discuss how to detect and counter these risks by applying processes and technology to keep these systems safely operating.

Autores

  • Tom Bartman
  • Kevin Carson
Código de data: 20150406
Loss of Effective System Grounding – Best Practices, Protection Challenges, and Solutions

This paper provides a theoretical view of how ungrounded and grounded systems behave as well as techniques for providing proper protection for both. It discusses a case study in which a particular system can change between effectively grounded and ungrounded and remain in service.

Autores

  • Darren De Ronde
  • Rick VanHatten
  • Austin Wade

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20150318
Underground Cable Parameter Estimation Using Time-Synchronized Event Data and Line Energization Data

This paper discusses the line parameter estimation methods for underground cables and presents results from field data and simulations.

Autores

  • Hibourahima Camara, Consolidated Edison Company of New York
  • Jasvinder Blah, Consolidated Edison Company of New York
  • Diego Pichardo, Consolidated Edison Company of New York
  • Arnold Wong, Consolidated Edison Company of New York
  • Amitabha Mukhopadhyay, Consolidated Edison Company of New York
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Hang Li
  • Rogerio Scharlach

Apresentado em

2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20150309
State-of-the-Art Islanding Detection and Decoupling Systems for Utility and Industrial Power Systems

This paper presents the functionality, validation, and performance of a state-of-the-art islanding detection and decoupling system in a simulated model for a real-world application.

Autores

  • Krishnanjan Gubba Ravikumar
  • Ashish Upreti
  • Adithiya Nagarajan

Apresentado em

2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20150303
Implementation of Reliable High-Speed Islanding Detection, Zone Interlocking, and Source Selection Schemes Using Smart Algorithms

This paper discusses the implementation of high-speed islanding detection and zone interlocking schemes at a North American refinery using automation controllers. It discusses the scheme layout, protocols used, and algorithms developed to integrate the schemes to achieve optimal performance.

Autores

  • Faridul Katha Basha
  • Ramanathan Palaniappan
  • Ashok Balasubramanian
  • RadhaKiranMaye Anne
  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Kent L. Oliver, Valero Bill Greehey Refineries

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
2015
  • IEEE I&CPS
Código de data: 20150220
How Disruptions in DC Power and Communications Circuits Can Affect Protection

This paper provides field cases that investigate protection system performance when systems are subjected to unexpected switching or interruptions in dc or communications links.

Autores

  • Karl Zimmerman
  • David Costello

Apresentado em

2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
2016
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150220
Case Study: Smart Automatic Synchronization in Islanded Power Systems

This paper describes a smart automatic synchronizing system that can connect multiple generators in an industrial power system during islanded and utility-connected modes via six different bus-tie and utility tie breakers. The automatic synchronizing system performs matching by controlling multiple governor and exciter interfaces within the facility.

Autores

  • Scott M. Manson
  • Ashish Upreti
  • Michael J. Thompson

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
2015
  • IEEE I&CPS
Código de data: 20150220
Distribution Automation Case Study: Rapid Fault Detection, Isolation, and Power Restoration for a Reliable Underground Distribution System

This paper describes the objectives and operating principles of a centralized and automated underground distribution automation system (UDAS) that was developed and applied for rapid fault detection, isolation, and service restoration.

Autores

  • David Gomes, CenterPoint Energy
  • Richard Colunga, CenterPoint Energy
  • Payal Gupta
  • Ashok Balasubramanian

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150218
Breaker Pole Scatter and Its Effect on Quadrilateral Ground Distance Protection

In this paper, the effect of breaker pole scatter on quadrilateral ground distance elements is investigated using a simple two-source power system with two short transmission lines. A case study is included.

Autores

  • James Ryan, Florida Power & Light Company
  • Arun Shrestha
  • Thanh-Xuan Nguyen

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150218
Paralleling CTs for Line Current Differential Applications: Problems and Solutions

This paper discusses complications that can arise from paralleling current transformers and highlights relay design improvements that have been made to add security to these applications.

Autores

  • David Costello
  • Jason Young
  • Jonas Traphoner

Apresentado em

2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • MIPSYCON
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
2016
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20150217
Integrating Modern Substation Automation Systems With Enterprise-Level Management

The paper discusses the benefits of integrating modern substations with a scalable enterprise approach to ensure consistency among substations for operations maintenance and quicker deployment while reducing costs and increasing cybersecurity. Application examples are included.

Autores

  • Mark Nakao, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
  • Simon Loo
  • Lee Melville

Apresentado em

2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150217
Transmission Line Setting Calculations – Beyond the Cookbook

This paper looks at various commonly used transmission line protective elements and points out characteristics of the line and system to look for when standard reaches and margins cannot be used.

Autores

  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Daniel L. Heidfeld

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • MIPSYCON
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
Speed of Line Protection – Can We Break Free of Phasor Limitations?

Today's relays are predominantly based on phasors, and as such, they incur a delay associated with the full-cycle observation window required for accurate phasor estimation. This paper discusses a number of protection techniques based on incremental quantities and traveling waves that significantly speed up line protection.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Armando Guzman
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
Reinventing the Relationship Between Operators and Regulators

This paper is a transcript of a panel session discussing the relationship between regulators and operators. Panel participants included representatives from Lower Colorado River Authority, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Texas Reliability Entity, a law firm, and the National Transportation Safety Board.

Autor

  • David Costello

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20150210
Negative-Sequence Differential Protection – Principles, Sensitivity, and Security

This paper explains the principles of negative-sequence differential protection, its basis for excellent sensitivity and speed, and the need for securing it with external fault detectors to deal with the saturation of current transformers. The paper also derives two new protection principles based on negative sequence for generator turn-to-turn fault protection.

Autores

  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Normann Fischer
  • Hector J. Altuve

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
CFE Generator Protection Guidelines for Setting 40 and 64G Elements Based on Simulations and Field Experience

This paper presents guidelines developed by CFE to improve and standardize generator protection. Based on the results of simulations and field experiences, the paper describes setting guidelines and improved protection schemes for loss-of-field (40) and stator ground fault (64G) protection.

Autores

  • Mauricio Sosa-Aguiluz, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Armando Guzman
  • Jean Leon

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
Analysis of a Relay Operation for an Intercircuit Fault

In this paper, we use gathered event reports to analyze an intercircuit fault that occurred multiple times between two separate voltage levels after a snowstorm. Also discussed are improvements to relay performance during intercircuit faults, including line current differential.

Autor

  • Ryan McDaniel

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
Addressing Protection Challenges Associated With Type 3 and Type 4 Wind Turbine Generators

This paper presents the fault current characteristics of a Type 4 wind turbine generator, a case study of a misoperation of directional overcurrent relays in a wind power plant, and recommendations for protecting wind power plants.

Autores

  • Bing Chen, CG Power Solutions USA Inc.
  • Arun Shrestha
  • Fred A. Ituzaro
  • Normann Fischer

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
A Tutorial on Calculating Source Impedance Ratios for Determining Line Length

This paper teaches how to calculate the source impedance ratio to classify the electrical length of a transmission line for determining protection requirements and setting criteria.

Autores

  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Amit Somani

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
2015
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20150210
A Wide-Area, Wide-Spectrum Big Data System

This paper discusses the design and implementation of a system that delivers wide-spectral bandwidth data with precise time stamps over a wide area.

Autor

  • Gregary C. Zweigle
Código de data: 20150202
Extending SCADA Networks Using Wireless Communications

This paper explores technology options for extending local-area networks (LANs) to devices in a substation yard by using wireless technology.

Autores

  • Steve T. Watt
  • Henry Loehner
  • Shankar V. Achanta
  • Andy Kivi
  • Ben Rowland

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20150123
Out-of-Band Remote Computer Recovery Concepts and Strategies

This paper provides a general overview of out-of-band management technology and discusses how it can be applied to a SCADA system to allow remote maintenance of network and computer assets, reduce costs, and improve system reliability.

Autor

  • John Prestwich

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20150122
Combining TDM and Ethernet to Improve Network Performance for Mission-Critical Applications

This paper shows how time-division multiplexing (TDM) and Ethernet communications can be integrated to leverage the benefits of each technology. It also evaluates communications-assisted relay protection schemes and considers future relay protection methods.

Autores

  • Ken Fodero
  • Paul Robertson

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20150122
Whitelist Malware Defense for Embedded Control System Devices

This paper investigates the benefits that whitelist malware protection provides power systems and shows that correctly combining malware protection and embedded architecture improves the reliability and cost of ownership of the whole system.

Autores

  • Josh Powers
  • Rhett Smith

Apresentado em

2015
  • PEAC
  • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
Código de data: 20150120
Mitigation of Undesired Operation of Recloser Controls Due to Distribution Line Inrush

This paper discusses ways to overcome undesired tripping on distribution feeders on inrush conditions using both settings changes and second-harmonic blocking.

Autores

  • Larry Wright
  • Lee Ayers, Mid-Carolina Electric Cooperative

Apresentado em

2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • WPRC
2015
  • Clemson PSC
  • REPC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20141212
NAND Flash Memory Reliability in Embedded Computer Systems

This white paper addresses the two main reliability concerns in NAND flash storage, what type of NAND flash memory is best suited for embedded computer systems, and how to optimize computer systems for maximum reliability of NAND flash storage.

Autor

  • Ian Olson
Código de data: 20141210
PG&E 500 kV Protection Standard Design and Development

This paper describes the development of a new Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) 500 kV transmission line and breaker protection standard, including the motivations for embarking on the project, challenges encountered, and lessons learned during the design effort.

Autores

  • Davis Erwin, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
  • Rafael Pineda, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
  • Monica Anderson, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
  • Eric Udren, Quanta Technology, LLC
  • Jordan Bell
  • Neal Jones

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20141014
High-Inertia Synchronous Motor Protection and Lessons Learned

This paper discusses the replacement of the existing motors at a major gas plant in Saudi Arabia with 27,000 hp synchronous motors. It discusses in detail the thermal model selection, custom thermal protection, relay settings, and the coordination study for these motors.

Autores

  • Faouzi Jebali, Saudi Aramco
  • Kamal Garg

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140929
Case Study: Centralized Ground Fault Detection System for LADWP Ungrounded Distribution System

This paper discusses the centralized ground fault detection system for the LADWP ungrounded distribution system. It explains the ground fault detection of ungrounded distribution systems and innovative algorithms developed to identify ground faults, as well as laboratory test and staged-fault field test results.

Autores

  • Douglas Kirby, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
  • Normann Fischer
  • Amandeep Kalra
  • Dennis Haes

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140912
Protective Relaying for Railway Feeders

This paper describes an ac railway electrical distribution system and the challenges associated with the protection of its feeders.

Autores

  • Francisco Javier Martinez Novo, Sistemas de Computación y Automática General S.A.
  • Luis San Martín Testón, Sistemas de Computación y Automática General S.A.
  • Fernando Calero
  • Isaac Arroyo

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140911
Injection-Based Generator Stator Ground Protection Advancements

This paper takes an in-depth look at the injection-based stator ground protection principle, reviews state-of-the-art techniques, and reports on a standalone injection-based relay capable of offering 64S 100 percent stator ground protection all of the time.

Autores

  • Pablo Sonez, Generación Mediterránea S.A.
  • Fabian Vicentini, Generación Riojana S.A.
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Marcos Donolo
  • Subhash Patel
  • Yu Xia
  • Rogerio C. Scharlach

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140911
Generator Protection Overcomes Current Transformer Limitations

This paper discusses a generator percentage differential element that uses external event detection logic to provide additional security for external events without sacrificing dependability.

Autores

  • Marcos Donolo
  • Armando Guzman
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Rishabh Jain
  • Dale Finney

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140911
Case Study: Analysis of a 138 kV Intercircuit Fault

This paper provides a discussion of event analysis and complex faults, along with a few key characteristics to assist in analyzing event report data generated by a complex fault. Finally, an in-depth analysis of a complex intercircuit fault that occurred on the LCRA TSC 138 kV system is provided.

Autores

  • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Jason Young

Apresentado em

2014
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140911
Case Study: Using IEC 61850 to Simplify Lockout Circuits in a 345 kV Wind Generation Integration Substation

This paper describes a case study of using IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging to simplify lockout and breaker failure tripping in a 345 kV wind generation integration substation.

Autores

  • Derek Vonada, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation
  • Gary Condict, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation
  • Jonathan Martin, UC Synergetic
  • Jason Keeney
  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Josh Bariola
  • Dave Pool

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140908
Distributed Control With Local and Wide-Area Measurements for Mitigation of Cascading Outages

This paper describes the development of a control system that applies local information in coordination with synchrophasor measurements to assess the complete state of the power system and differentiate a local phenomenon from the possibility of an overload-related cascade.

Autores

  • Greg Zweigle
  • Ellery Blood

Apresentado em

2014
  • North American Power Symposium
Código de data: 20140715
Tutorial on Symmetrical Components Part 2: Answer Key

This white paper provides both theoretical and real-world examples with questions and solutions that can be used to gain experience with symmetrical components.

Autores

  • Ariana Amberg
  • Alex Rangel
Código de data: 20140506
Case Study: Simultaneous Optimization of Electrical Grid Stability and Steam Production

This paper explains the basics of how steam turbines produce power, how they are controlled for extraction and droop, and how governors provide dynamic disturbance rejection in an electric power system. This paper shares a case study project at a refinery and includes discussion of steam control, turbine speed and power control, adaptive boundary conditions, extraction turbine basics, and autosynchronization.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Abdel-Rahman Khatib
  • Matt Checksfield, Powerplan Engineers Pty Ltd.
  • Peter Duffield, Rio Tinto

Apresentado em

2014
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20140415
Reliable Generator Islanding Detection for Industrial Power Consumers With On-Site Generation

This paper introduces a reliable islanding detection solution, using multiprinciple detection techniques and voting supervision logic, that was proposed, implemented, and tested at a refinery in Texas.

Autores

  • RadhaKiranMaye Anne
  • Faridul Katha Basha
  • Ramanathan Palaniappan
  • Michael J. Thompson
  • Kent L. Oliver, Valero Bill Greehey Refineries

Apresentado em

2014
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20140414
Verifying Transformer Differential Compensation Settings

Currents associated with balanced and unbalanced faults through three-phase transformers with various combinations of delta and wye windings are reviewed in this paper and used to develop alternative transformer differential relay testing methods using existing relay test sets with two or three current outputs.

Autores

  • Edsel Atienza
  • Marion Cooper

Apresentado em

2013
  • Georgia Tech PRC
2014
  • Clemson PSC
Código de data: 20140410
Coordinating Dissimilar Line Relays in a Communications-Assisted Scheme

Using dissimilar relays in a pilot scheme presents coordination difficulties due to different operation principles that result in different sensitivities, speeds, and transient responses. This paper presents problems and challenges discovered in real-world applications of dissimilar relays in a pilot scheme. The paper also presents solutions to minimize the risk of misoperation and achieve good fault coverage.

Autores

  • William Tucker, American Electric Power
  • Andrew Burich
  • Michael Thompson
  • RadhaKiranMaye Anne
  • Sneha Vasudevan

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140331
Validation of Transmission Line Relay Parameters Using Synchrophasors

This paper proposes a method to measure transmission line parameters for protective relay settings. This method relies on synchronized phasor measurements taken at both ends of the line and compares them with the calculations from both the equivalent PI circuit and the distributed constant line parameters.

Autores

  • Brian K. Johnson, University of Idaho
  • Cat Wong, Entergy
  • Sal Jadid

Apresentado em

2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140328
Understanding and Validating Ethernet Networks for Mission-Critical Protection, Automation, and Control Applications

This paper contains illustrations of test methods in IEDs and test devices to verify the performance of Ethernet networks as previously described in the paper "Design and Validation Practices for Ethernet Networks to Support Automation and Control Applications."

Autores

  • Saroj Chelluri, NTPC Limited
  • David Dolezilek
  • Jason Dearien
  • Amandeep Kalra
Código de data: 20140327
SEL Recommendations on Periodic Maintenance Testing of Protective Relays

This paper provides recommendations for testing SEL relays and guidance for developing a test program that is compliant with NERC PRC-005-2.

Autor

  • Karl Zimmerman
Código de data: 20140324
Series-Compensated Line Protection Challenges in the CREZ Region

The Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) is protecting a series-compensated line on their transmission grid for the first time as part of the Competitive Renewable Energy Zone (CREZ). This paper discusses experiences in designing, setting, and validating the new protection system.

Autores

  • Genardo Corpuz, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Kristian Koellner, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Jordan Bell
  • Siddharth Rajan
  • Amit Somani
  • Michael Thompson

Apresentado em

2014
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140321
Percentage Restrained Differential, Percentage of What?

This paper examines several common methods for defining restraint and slope characteristics and provides guidance on selection of the correct slope setting.

Autor

  • Michael J. Thompson

Apresentado em

2010
  • WPRC
2011
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140319
Tutorial on Fault Locating Embedded in Line Current Differential Relays – Methods, Implementation, and Application Considerations

This paper describes a new fault locating algorithm for two-, three-, and four-terminal lines that is suitable for integration in a line current differential protection scheme.

Autores

  • Omar Avendano, Portland General Electric
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Hector J. Altuve
  • Bin Le
  • Normann Fischer

Apresentado em

2014
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140312
Open-Circuited CT Misoperation and Investigation

This paper revisits the IEEE dielectric strength standard, safe design and work procedures regarding CTs, and what happens when a CT is open-circuited under load. The case study emphasizes the critical importance of commissioning tests and root cause analysis to power system reliability.

Autor

  • David Costello

Apresentado em

2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20140310
Adaptive Inverse-Time Elements Take Microprocessor-Based Technology Beyond Emulating Electromechanical Relays

This paper describes an inverse-time element that adapts to power system operating conditions without changing settings groups.

Autores

  • Armando Guzman
  • Luther Scott Anderson
  • Casper Labuschagne

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20140307
Minimizing Capacitor Bank Outage Time Through Fault Location

This paper analyzes various capacitor bank configurations and proposes an economical method to help locate the faulty elements or units for each configuration. The paper also provides results that verify the proposed methods using a Real Time Digital Simulator.

Autores

  • Joseph Schaefer, Florida Power & Light Company
  • Satish Samineni
  • Casper Labuschagne
  • Steven Chase
  • Dereje Jada Hawaz

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140304
Saudi Aramco Experience - Islanding Scheme for Manifa Central Processing Facility

This paper discusses the islanding scheme design at Manifa Central Processing Facility (CPF), the fifth largest oil field in the world, and how the design allows the critical CPF to correctly and quickly identify an islanding condition.

Autores

  • Kahtan Mustafa, Saudi Aramco
  • Kamal Garg
  • Rajkumar Swaminathan

Apresentado em

2014
  • PCIC Europe
Código de data: 20140227
Functional Overview and Operating Principles for the AR-OH and AR360 Overhead AutoRANGER Fault Indicators

This document defines AutoRANGER® trip logic, inrush restraint (IR), installation considerations, fault indication modes, principles of operation, battery conservation, and test/reset methods.

Autores

  • Tyson Salewske
  • Anthony Patenaude
Código de data: 20140217
Modernization of Mill Power Systems for Better Control and Visualization

This paper describes the replacement of electromechanical relays with microprocessor-based relays at a steel mill. The microprocessor-based relays enable enhanced safety, event analysis, protection, monitoring, and control.

Autores

  • Brian Clark
  • Tim Burttram, Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc.

Apresentado em

2014
  • AISTech
Código de data: 20140213
Introducing Power System Event Report Data Into Plant Historian Systems

This paper addresses how event report data from intelligent electronic devices can be transferred into and stored in industrial process historians.

Autores

  • Michael Rourke
  • Mahti Daliparthi
  • David C. Mazur, Rockwell Automation, Inc.
  • Rob Entzminger, Rockwell Automation, Inc.

Apresentado em

2014
  • AISTech
Código de data: 20140213
Design and Validation Practices for Ethernet Networks to Support Automation and Control Applications

This paper describes testing methods to verify the design and validation of Ethernet networks.

Autores

  • Saroj Chelluri, NTPC Limited
  • David Dolezilek
  • Jason Dearien
  • Amandeep Kalra

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
  • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
2015
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20140212
Protecting Mutually Coupled Transmission Lines: Challenges and Solutions

This paper is a tutorial on the protection of mutually coupled transmission lines.

Autores

  • Demetrios A. Tziouvaras
  • Hector J. Altuve
  • Fernando Calero

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
Performance of Generator Protection Relays During Off-Nominal Frequency Operation

This paper reviews the protection requirements for generators during periods of off-nominal frequency operation. Traditional methods and a novel approach for frequency tracking and compensation are reviewed.

Autores

  • Dennis Tierney, Calpine Corporation
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Dale Finney
  • Derrick Haas
  • Bin Le

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
Low Second-Harmonic Content in Transformer Inrush Currents – Analysis and Practical Solutions for Protection Security

This paper explains the transformer ultrasaturation phenomenon and illustrates it with actual field cases. The paper presents practical solutions to the protection security problem caused by the low level of second harmonic in the inrush current during ultrasaturation, ranging from simple setting and logic choices to a new method of detecting magnetizing inrush with enhanced security.

Autores

  • Steven Hodder, Hydro One Networks, Inc.
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Normann Fischer
  • Yu Xia

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
Locating Faults by the Traveling Waves They Launch

This paper discusses the physics, theory, and implementation challenges of traveling wave fault locating on overhead transmission lines. It also discusses integration of traveling wave fault locating in microprocessor relays and presents Bonneville Power Administration’s field experience using these relays.

Autores

  • Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
  • Armando Guzman
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • MIPSYCON
  • PAC World Conference
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
How to Determine the Effectiveness of Generator Differential Protection

This paper describes the factors influencing the design of the stator winding of a synchronous generator and examines the degree of protection afforded by the various types of differential elements (phase, negative, and zero sequence) for stator winding faults.

Autores

  • Normann Fischer
  • Dale Finney
  • Douglas Taylor

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
High-Impedance Bus Differential Misoperation Due to Circuit Breaker Restrikes

This paper discusses the potential misoperation of a high-impedance bus differential relay when surge arresters are located within the relay zone of protection.

Autores

  • Kristian Koellner, Lower Colorado River Authority
  • Oskar Reynisson
  • David Costello

Apresentado em

2013
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • WPRC
2014
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
Distribution Automation and Video Surveillance Systems Improve Electric Cooperative Service and Security

This paper discusses the design and implementation of the SONET communications, distribution automation, and video surveillance systems at Taylor Electric Cooperative, Inc. in Texas. These systems help increase service reliability and minimize the impact of an outage to their customers.

Autores

  • Robert H. Gandy, Taylor Electric Cooperative, Inc.
  • Phillip G. Costantinou
  • Robert J. Ince

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20140210
Case Study: Using Distribution Automation to Build the Next Generation Utility in the City of Wadsworth

This paper discusses an automated fault detection, isolation, and restoration scheme that provides the City of Wadsworth with both an effective volt/VAR control system and a dynamic, system-wide, high-speed trip blocking scheme that can be flexible and continue functioning as the system topology changes.

Autores

  • Mark Feller, P.E., City of Wadsworth
  • Bryan Fazzari
  • Robert Van Singel
  • William C. Edwards Jr.

Apresentado em

2012
  • WPDAC
2013
  • DistribuTECH
  • Clemson PSC
2014
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
Application Considerations When Protecting Lines With Tapped and In-Line Transformers

This paper reviews various approaches to protecting tapped lines, including pilot protection schemes with distance and zero- and negative-sequence directional elements, time-overcurrent elements, line current differential schemes, and stepped distance backup.

Autores

  • Rohan Perera, Hydro One Networks, Inc.
  • Bogdan Kasztenny

Apresentado em

2012
  • WPRC
2013
  • Georgia Tech PRC
2014
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20140210
Understanding and Applying Precision Time Protocol

This paper presents Precision Time Protocol (PTP) fundamentals and discusses considerations for designing power system networks to achieve submicrosecond accuracies.

Autores

  • Steve T. Watt
  • Shankar Achanta
  • Hamza Abubakari
  • Eric Sagen

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
2015
  • Clemson PSC
  • Saudi Arabia Smart Grid
Código de data: 20140206
Adaptive Control Strategies and Communications for Utility Integration of Photovoltaic Solar Sites

This paper discusses how to address the communications integration and activation of adaptive control strategies for photovoltaic solar sites and other distributed energy resources.

Autores

  • Michael Mills-Price, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc.
  • Michael Rourke
  • Darrin Kite

Apresentado em

2014
  • MIPSYCON
  • PEAC
  • Global Energy Technology Summit
Código de data: 20140206
Design of a Centralized Substation Synchronizing System

This paper describes the implementation of a centralized synchronizing scheme for substations with complex topologies.

Autores

  • Dale Finney
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Marcos Donolo
  • Amy Sinclair

Apresentado em

2014
  • PEAC
  • Global Energy Technology Summit
2015
  • GRIDTECH
Código de data: 20140205
Protection of Mixed Overhead and Underground Cable Lines

This paper describes the protection challenges of ac underground cables and transmission circuits with mixed conductor technologies, discusses the challenges of calculating the relay ac input quantities for faults along the underground cable circuit, and then provides solutions for the proper protection of underground cables and mixed conductor technology circuits.

Autores

  • D. A. Tziouvaras
  • J. Needs

Apresentado em

2014
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20140117
A New Traveling Wave Fault Locating Algorithm for Line Current Differential Relays

Autores

  • E. O. Schweitzer, III
  • A. Guzmán
  • M. V. Mynam
  • V. Skendzic
  • B. Kasztenny
  • S. Marx, Bonneville Power Administration

Apresentado em

2014
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20140117
A New Inrush Detection Algorithm for Transformer Differential Protection


Autores

  • B. Kasztenny
  • N. Fischer
  • Y. Xia

Apresentado em

2014
  • DPSP
Código de data: 20140117
Convert Operational Data Into Maintenance Savings

Electrical protective relays contain a great deal of equipment condition monitoring data. Multiple systems are available to read this information for use in both operations and maintenance. This information can then be used to improve operation and maintenance efficiencies. This paper focuses on turning this existing relay information into scheduled work activities that achieve real cost savings.

Autor

  • Mark Zeller

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
2014
  • REPC
Código de data: 20131205
Impacts of Shunt Reactors on Transmission Line Protection

This paper examines typical implementations for shunt reactors, considers their advantages and disadvantages, and presents protection requirements and solutions required by each implementation.

Autores

  • Eithar Nashawati, Oncor Electric Delivery
  • Normann Fischer
  • Bin Le
  • Douglas Taylor

Apresentado em

2011
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20131121
Designing a Special Protection System to Mitigate High Interconnection Loading Under Extreme Conditions – A Scalable Approach

This paper discusses the San Diego Gas & Electric design process for a special protection system to mitigate high interconnection loading under extreme conditions. The scheme is scalable and accommodates design changes with minimum effort.

Autores

  • Bill Cook, San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Kamal Garg

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20131107
Improve Transmission Fault Location and Distance Protection Using Accurate Line Parameters

 This paper discusses methods to calculate line impedance values. A new proposed method uses single-pole open conditions to calculate the line impedance values. The proposed method is validated using EMTP simulations and field data.

Autores

  • Hugo E. Prado-Felix, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Víctor H. Serna-Reyna, Comisión Federal de Electricidad
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Marcos Donolo
  • Armando Guzman

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Georgia Tech FDA
  • PAC World Americas
Código de data: 20131021
Protection, Control, Automation, and Integration for Off-Grid Solar-Powered Microgrids in Mexico

In 2012, CFE launched two projects to provide electric service to two isolated rural communities located in the mountains near Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico. This paper describes the off-grid solar-powered microgrids; their protection, control, and monitoring systems; and the operational experience accumulated thus far.

Autores

  • Carlos Eduardo Ortiz, Greenergy
  • Jose Francisco Alvarez Rada, Greenergy
  • Edson Hernandez
  • Juan Lozada
  • Alejandro Carbajal
  • Hector J. Altuve

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20131015
Defining and Designing Communications Determinism for Substation Applications

This paper discusses different performance criteria for speed, reliability, dependability, and availability based on international standards. Using these criteria, protection engineers specify the behavior they require for the application and network designers select the technologies and implementation to satisfy the requirements.

Autores

  • Dorran Bekker, e-LEK Engineering
  • Timothy Tibbals
  • David Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2015
  • GRIDTECH
Código de data: 20130919
Tutorial on the Impact of Network Parameters on Distance Element Resistance Coverage

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that determine the resistance coverage for both the mho and quadrilateral elements. These factors are the network parameters such as the source and transmission line sequence impedances, the distance to the fault, and, in the case of quadrilateral elements, the resistance reach setting. Some basic rules are derived based on the testing of elementary networks.

Autores

  • Gabriel Benmouyal
  • Armando Guzman
  • Rishabh Jain

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20130912
Bus Protection Considerations for Various Bus Types

This paper examines several common bus configurations, presents appropriate protection schemes for each configuration, and analyzes the protection scheme complexity, advantages, and disadvantages.

Autores

  • Caitlin Martin, Bonneville Power Administration
  • Steven Chase
  • Thanh-Xuan Nguyen
  • Dereje Jada Hawaz
  • Jeff Pope
  • Casper Labuschagne

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • MIPSYCON
2015
  • Georgia Tech PRC
Código de data: 20130912
Distribution Bus Protection Upgrade Considerations When Integrating Distributed Generation

This paper helps identify possible bus protection upgrades that may be required to maintain coordination, minimize equipment damage, and prevent misoperations that can result from the addition of distributed generation.

Autor

  • Edsel Atienza

Apresentado em

2013
  • WPRC
2014
  • Clemson PSC
  • MIPSYCON
Código de data: 20130909
Detecting Broken Rotor Bars With Zero-Setting Protection

Autores

  • Carlos Pezzani, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto
  • Pablo Donolo, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto
  • Guillermo Bossio, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto
  • Marcos Donolo
  • Armando Guzmán
  • Stanley E. Zocholl

Apresentado em

2011
  • WPRC
2012
  • IEEE I&CPS
Código de data: 20130724
Advanced Event Analysis Tutorial Part 2: Answer Key

Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find root cause. This session provides several advanced real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Autor

  • Karl Zimmerman
Código de data: 20130724
Collaboration Leads to Modular Protection and Control Solutions That Satisfy IEC Security and Dependability Requirements

Autores

  • David Dolezilek
  • Fernando Ayello

Apresentado em

2014
  • Southern African Power System Protection Conference
2015
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20130618
Best Practices for Motor Control Center Protection and Control

This paper discusses the philosophy of a comprehensive low-voltage motor control center protection and control system.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Bob Hughes
  • Richard D. Kirby
  • H. Landis Floyd, DuPont

Apresentado em

2013
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20130501
Integrating SCADA, Load Shedding, and High-Speed Controls on an Ethernet Network at a North American Refinery

This paper discusses the implementation of an Ethernet communications ring network that is used for SCADA, load shedding, and high-speed IEC 61850 GOOSE controls at a large industrial facility.

Autores

  • Aboli Kulkarni
  • James Payne, Valero Energy Corporation
  • Peter Mistretta, Richard Design Services

Apresentado em

2013
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20130430
Case Study: An Adaptive Underfrequency Load-Shedding System

This paper explains an adaptive underfrequency-based load-shedding scheme that uses an inertia compensation load-tracking (ICLT) algorithm.

Autores

  • Scott Manson
  • Greg Zweigle
  • Vinod Yedidi

Apresentado em

2013
  • PCIC
Código de data: 20130430
Tutorial on Symmetrical Components Part 1: Examples

This white paper provides both theoretical and real-world examples with questions that can be used to gain experience with symmetrical components. The full solutions to these questions can be found in the white paper "Tutorial on Symmetrical Components, Part 2: Solutions."

Autores

  • Ariana Amberg
  • Alex Rangel
Código de data: 20130422
Design and Application Considerations for User-Programmable Bits Over Protection Channels

This paper describes the methods used to detect communications errors, explains how to convert the commonly used bit error rate measurement obtained from a given communications channel into a quantitative estimate of undetected bit errors, and discusses diagnostic features found in modern digital relays.

Autores

  • Zachary Eyasu, Southwest Transmission Cooperative, Inc.
  • Bin Le
  • Tony Lee
  • Ken Behrendt
  • Veselin Skendzic
Código de data: 20130328
Case Study: Introduction of New Technologies in Unattended Substations in Panama

This paper presents the integrated system design challenges of the Boquerón 3 substation in Panama. It also presents the technologies and solutions applied to successfully integrate intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) via IEC 61850 with a local human-machine interface (HMI) serving as a local control without IEC 61850.

Autores

  • Hector Perez, Empresa de Transmision Electrica, S.A.
  • Luis Herra, Empresa de Transmision Electrica, S.A.
  • Edson Hernandez
  • Camilo Alzate
  • Alejandro Correa
  • Jesus Gallegos

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Conference
Código de data: 20130328
A Practical Approach to Line Current Differential Testing

Practical testing recommendations are presented in this paper. Several common 87L testing scenarios are discussed, including single-relay tests using loopback communications, single-relay tests of the operating and restrain characteristics of the relay using test mode, multiple-relay tests of the characteristics and channel using test mode, and multiple-relay tests of the characteristics and channel without test mode where real-world conditions are simulated.

Autores

  • Karl Zimmerman
  • David Costello

Apresentado em

2013
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20130328
Sizing Current Transformers for Line Protection Applications

This paper discusses the factors to consider for sizing current transformers for line protection applications.

Autores

  • Héctor J. Altuve
  • Normann Fischer
  • Gabriel Benmouyal
  • Dale Finney

Apresentado em

2012
  • WPRC
2013
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20130311
Wide-Area Measurement and Control Scheme Maintains Central America’s Power System Stability

This paper discusses details of the Central American power system, the deployment of PMCUs, a modal analysis-based scheme, and the communications network of the scheme. It also presents events that show how the active power-based and modal analysis-based SCS avoided power system collapse.

Autores

  • Jose Vicente Espinoza, AMM-Guatemala
  • Armando Guzman
  • Fernando Calero
  • Mangapathirao V. Mynam
  • Eduardo Palma

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
2014
  • DistribuTECH
Código de data: 20130214
Practical EHV Reactor Protection

This paper discusses the different reactor types currently used, their characteristics, CT selection and performance issues, and different types of reactor faults. The paper also provides guidelines to practicing engineers to evaluate reactor protection design and determine protection elements and relay settings for a high-voltage transmission line shunt reactor.

Autores

  • Faridul Katha Basha
  • Michael Thompson

Apresentado em

2013
  • Georgia Tech PRC
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
  • WPRC
Código de data: 20130214
Using Rogowski Coils Inside Protective Relays

This paper discusses the practical considerations of using this coil in a relay. Complicating and mitigating factors are discussed, along with the performance impact on the relay and practical experiences in the field.

Autores

  • Veselin Skendzic
  • Bob Hughes

Apresentado em

2012
  • WPRC
2013
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20130212
The Demands and Implications of IT and OT Collaboration

This paper focuses primarily on describing the OT world for those familiar with IT and presents the major OT requirements, security concerns, and the ramification of an impaired OT system compared with an IT system.

Autores

  • Mohamed Moussamir
  • David Dolezilek

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
  • PAC World Africa
Código de data: 20130212
Series Compensation, Power Swings, and Inverter-Based Sources and Their Impact on Line Current Differential Protection

This paper briefly touches on protection security but focuses on the dependability of line current differential protection under a number of specific system conditions, including series compensation, power swings and off-nominal frequency, and inverter-based sources. This paper reviews the impact of each of the mentioned conditions and provides illustrations using simulations.

Autores

  • Yiyan Xue, American Electric Power
  • Bogdan Kasztenny
  • Douglas Taylor
  • Yu Xia

Apresentado em

2013
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20130212
Securing SCADA and EMS Communications to Thwart Advanced Persistent Threats and Surpass NERC CIP Requirements

This paper shares new advances in technical solutions that secure supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and energy management system (EMS) communications.

Autores

  • Dwight Anderson
  • Huba Leidenfrost

Apresentado em

2013
  • PEAC
Código de data: 20130212
Protecting Distribution Substation Assets – Modern Protection Schemes With Microprocessor-Based Relays

Modern microprocessor-based relays allow for much better protection schemes to protect the distribution substation assets. This paper analyzes several schemes that have recently been implemented at Mid-Carolina Electric Cooperative in South Carolina.

Autores

  • Lee Ayers, Mid-Carolina Electric Cooperative
  • Mark Lanier, Atlantic Power Sales, LLC
  • Larry Wright

Apresentado em

2012
  • Clemson PSC
  • Georgia Tech PRC
2013
  • Texas A&M Relay Conference
Código de data: 20130212